Event Management 20(3) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 297-312
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14640225219155
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Launching off but Falling Fast: Experiences of Becoming More Physically Active in Response to the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games

Luke R. Potwarka,* Halyna Tepylo,* Darla Fortune,† and Heather Mair*

*Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
†Department of Applied Human Sciences, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Using a qualitative approach, we sought insights into the nature of the relationship between a mega-sport event and increased activity levels in a sample of young adults living within a host nation. To achieve this purpose, we conducted semistructured interviews with current (and recently graduated) university students living in Canada who indicated becoming more active as a result of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. Through our thematic analysis, we identified three interrelated and overarching themes:
connecting through engaged viewership; harnessing the connection; and launching off but falling fast. Connecting through engaged viewership refers to personal and meaningful connections participants made with the Olympic athletes they watched. The act of watching elite athletes compete appeared to inspire participants to make positive activity-related changes in their own lives. Harnessing the connection refers to supportive social and built environments, as well as access to particular resources that enabled participants to act on their inspired state. Launching off but falling fast refers to the intense, but fleeting, nature of changes to participants’ activity levels. We conclude the article by discussing the significance of our findings in terms of research and practice.

Key words: Trickle-down effect; Qualitative methodology; Olympics; Sport participation; Physical activity; Demonstration effect; Mega-sport events

Address correspondence to Luke Potwarka, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1; Tel: 519-888-5467, x32748; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 313-325
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682560744550
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Use of Social Media for New Service Development by Finnish Event and Festival Organizers

Katja Pasanen and Henna Konu

Centre for Tourism Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Savonlinna, Finland

This article explores how event and festival (EF) managers use social media in new service development (NSD), in what phases of NSD consumers are involved, and in what way the customer contributions are used in order to influence the different phases of service development. The empirical data for the study were collected by electronic survey from Finnish cultural and sports EF organizers, and complemented with phone interviews. The study revealed that Finnish EFs use the most common social media tools in everyday operations, particularly for marketing purposes. They have recognized the possibilities to use social media in NSD and have also acknowledged the benefits customer involvement in NSD can bring. Most commonly, customers are involved in the first and final stages of the NSD process. Constraints for web-based NSD was also found. This study brings information about the possibilities of social media in NSD in EF context that may help the organizers and developers to plan and develop the management strategies. Results also show that in the future there may be demand for additional training for EF organizers related to the usage of social media. This study also has limitations. The response rate was rather low, and larger samples should be used in the future. It would also be useful to interview diverse EFs using social media in NSD purposes in the future. The study was conducted only in Finland and thus the results cannot be internationally generalized.

Key words: Customer involvement; New service development (NSD); Social media; Events and festivals (EF); Finland

Address correspondence to Katja Pasanen, Centre for Tourism Studies, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 86, 57101 Savonlinna, Finland. Tel: +358 50 439 0925; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 327-339
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682560744596
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

One Destination and Two Events: A Comparative Analysis on Perceived Value, Satisfaction, and Intention to Revisit

Young Hoon Kim,* Dan J. Kim,† and Tun-Min (Catherine) Jai‡

*Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA
†Department of Information Technology and Decision Sciences (ITDS), University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA
‡Department of Hospitality and Retail Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA

Although many previous studies have recognized festivals and special events as an important area in hospitality research, there has been little research attempting to understand attendee’s behavior by comparing different themed festivals or events. Traditionally, researchers have focused on a single event or festival rather than understanding and comparing different themed events together. The purposes of this study are threefold: 1) To examine the relationships among three components: perceived value, satisfaction, and intention to revisit, 2) To compare the results of causal relationships among three components from two festivals in the same destination, and 3) To provide any managerial implication. A research model is proposed and tested by causal relationships among those factors. The theoretical background is explained in the literature review. All hypotheses were supported at the significant level (
p < 0.05) except H7: There are significant differences between the two proposed models of festival (i.e., arts and food). The findings of this study can help stakeholders of destinations better understand attendee’s behavior and develop festivals that can attract more business.

Key words: Festival; Attendees’ behavior; Cognitive; Affective; Conative; Smart PLS

Address correspondence to Young Hoon Kim, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311100, Denton, TX, 76203, USA. Tel: 1-940-565-4786; Fax: 1-940-565-4348; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 341-351
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682560744631
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Comparison of Local and International Festival Attendees’ Motives and Perception of Festival Impacts: Case of Sauti Za Busara

Dev Jani and John R. M. Philemon

University of Dar-es-Salaam Business School, Mlimani Campus, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

Festivals have been in existence since time immemorial. Festivals serve as cultural celebrations for the locals and international tourists who wish to look into the local culture. The concept of sustainability has crossed boundaries from its original environmental issues into tourism and festivals. As a means towards ensuring festivals remain a core rather than a peripheral leisure activity for both locals and international attendees, this study aimed at comparing the motives and perception of festival impacts for the two groups. A self-administered questionnaire was used in collecting data during the annual
Sauti za Busara music festival in Zanzibar. Chi-square and t-tests were used to ascertain group differences where motivation to attend the festival indicated significant differences between locals and international attendees. Both groups of attendees indicated to have positive perception of the festival impacts onto the economic, environment, andsocioculture. The results have policy and management implications that can aid festival stakeholders to make the festivals sustainable.

Key words: Festival; Sustainability; Motives; Attendees; Zanzibar

Address correspondence to Dev Jani, University of Dar-es-Salaam Business School, Mlimani Campus, P. O. Box 35046, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Tel: +255 717 028 780; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 353-364
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682560744677
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring the Site Selection Decisions of Incentive Travel Planners

Judith Mair,* Xin (Cathy) Jin,† and Joanne Jung-Eun Yoo

*UQ Business School, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia
†Department of Tourism, Sports and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Southport, QLD, Australia
‡Hotel, Restaurant and Institutional Management, Alfred Lerner College of Business and Economics, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA

This article examines how incentive travel is conceptualized, planned, and organized in three major markets—Australia, China, and the US. The findings suggest that planners across the three markets share similar perceptions on what characterizes incentive trips but differ slightly in the planning and operational phase pertinent to varying customer characteristics and requirements. This exploratory study provides a basis for future research in the area of incentive travel and useful information for incentive travel planners.

Key words: Incentive travel; Site selection; Business events; Planners

Address correspondence to Dr. Judith Mair, UQ Business School, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 365-381
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682560744712
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Ecological Systems Theory Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility: Contextual Perspectives From Meeting Planners

James Musgrave* and Simon Woodward†

*Department of Food and Tourism, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
†School of Events, Tourism and Hospitality, Leeds Beckett University, Headingley Campus, Leeds, UK

Business reputation, competitive advantage, differentiation, and regulatory adherence are all factors that are pushing corporate social responsibility (CSR) center stage within the international meetings industry. However, attempts to simplify what is essentially a complex and contextual driven movement through certification and guides has created an incomplete understanding of the salient issues; contemporaneously ignoring contextual variables rather than acknowledging these and the impact these variables have on CSR practice and acceptance. The purpose of this article is to explore the contextual debate of CSR adaptation and practice within the meetings sector within a framework of an ecological systems theory. The authors applied a constant comparison process across 90 interview transcripts in order to establish a rigorous audit trail of analysis. Eight practices were identified: Green Technology, Legislation, Transparency and Reliability, Nonfinancial Donations, Workforce, Community Engagement, Supply Chain Management, and Volunteer Labor. These eight practices were then applied to the constructs of an ecological systems model and an exploration of contextual factors was considered. In recognizing a systems approach to CSR there is an acceptance that there is not one best method and that different values, implementation approaches, and evaluation mechanisms of CSR can lead to similar results.

Key words: Corporate social responsibility (CSR); Context; Meeting planners; Ecological systems theory; Events management

Address correspondence to James Musgrave, Senior Lecturer in Events Management, Department of Food and Tourism, Hollings Faculty, Manchester Metropolitan University, Room 2.26, Cavendish Building, Cavendish Street, Manchester, M15 6BG, UK. Tel: 0161 247 2736; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 383-393
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682560744758
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Segmenting Meeting and Event Management Organizations Based on Business Performance

Rob Hallak,* Vivienne S. Mccabe,* Graham Brown,* and Guy Assaker

*UniSA Business School, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia
†Adnan Kassar School of Business, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon

This study examines the characteristics and practices of small- and medium-sized meeting and event management organizations (MEMOs). Using data collected from 120 MEMOs in Australia, cluster analysis, chi-square, and Kruskal–Wallis were used to categorize and profile these organizations based on their performance levels. Significant differences were found between high-performing enterprises (HPE), average-performing enterprises (APE), and low-performing enterprises (LPE). These differences relate to a number of business and owner characteristics, including the age of the business, its legal structure, and the owners’ level of entrepreneurial skills. These characteristics were used to both profile the HPEs and to identify factors that influence business performance. The findings from this study present implications for researchers in events and entrepreneurial studies as well as for policymakers aiming to support the sustainable development of the events management industry.

Key words: Event management organizations (MEMOS); Small firms; Enterprise performance; Cluster analysis; Australia

Address correspondence to Rob Hallak, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Management, UniSA Business School, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia. Tel: +618 8302 0474; Fax: 618 8302 0512; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 395-408
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682560744794
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Community Engagement and Public Events: The Case of Australian Folk Festivals

Francesca Piazzi and Rob Harris

Australian Centre for Event Management, Management Discipline Group, School of Business, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

The impact of public events on their host communities has been an area of increasing researcher focus over the past decade. While acknowledging this, little effort has been directed at identifying those practices purposefully employed by the organizers of such events for community engagement purposes. This exploratory study, undertaken in the Australian context, seeks to go some way towards addressing this gap in the literature by examining one type of public event—folk festivals—which anecdotally have a reputation for being proactive in the area of community engagement. The methodology for this study involved an extensive literature review, a series of in-depth interviews with senior managers of selected folk festivals (20), and an examination of secondary data sources relating to these same events. An analysis of this material resulted in the identification of a number of community engagement practices. These practices were grouped under three broad headings: transactional, transitional, or transformational. Additionally, a number of factors were identified as drivers for the adoption of these practices, while others were found to impact upon their use and/or effectiveness. It was also determined that a broad range of formal and informal community groups were embraced through the community engagement process. The significance of the findings from this study lie in their capacity to provide event organizers, both in the folk festival area and the broader public events field, with a deeper appreciation of the range of potential community engagement practices, along with key considerations in their use, as they seek to build a positive operational climate within their host communities.

Key words: Public events; Folk festivals; Community engagement; Stakeholders; Transactional, transitional, and transformational community engagement practices

Address correspondence to Dr. Rob Harris, Australian Centre for Event Management, Management Discipline Group, School of Business, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 222 Lindfield, 2070 Sydney, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 409-417
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682560744875
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Workplace Bullying: Lessons From the Special Events Industry

Miranda Kitterlin-Lynch,* Mary Tanke,* and David P. Stevens†

*Chaplin School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
†Department of Management, B. I. Moody III College of Business Administration, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, USA

It is estimated that more than 53.5 million workers have been the victim of workplace bullying in the US. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of workplace bullying behaviors in the special events industry. A survey of 447 hospitality workers indicated that special events workers witness significantly less bullying behaviors than their non-special events hospitality counterparts. Specifically, special events workers reported witnessing less of the following bullying behaviors: “exclusion,” “gossip,” “glaring,” “space invasion,” “intimidating discipline,” “innuendo and sarcasm,” “wrongful judgment,” “public shaming,” and “work left for others” than workers in all other facets of the hospitality industry. Practical implications and recommendations for future study are provided.

Key words: Workplace bullying; Special events; Workplace harassment

Address correspondence to Miranda Kitterlin-Lynch, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Chaplin School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Florida International University, 3000 N.E. 151 St., North Miami, FL 33019, USA. Tel: 305-919-4424; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 419-431
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682560744910
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Identification and Differentiation of Festival Stakeholders

Mathilda Van Niekerk* and Donald Getz†

*Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
†Professor Emeritus, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada

This article sets out to identify, differentiate, and categorize festival stakeholders by means of a multidimensional approach. Festivals are coproduced by a collection of stakeholders, and festival organizers facilitate the festival outcomes by interpreting stakeholders’ contributions, aims, and concerns. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical framework was developed that illustrates how previous studies have typically identified and differentiated festival stakeholders by listing them or by means of a one-dimensional approach. For this study, an online survey was developed and administered to festival organizers in the US, testing the possibility of identifying, differentiating, and grouping festival stakeholders from a multidimensional approach. Based on the study results, festival stakeholders have been identified, differentiated, and categorized into internal and external stakeholders, eight universal groups, and a further 45 unique subgroups. Some stakeholders are universal in terms of most festivals, while other stakeholders will be unique—this depends on the festival itself. This study challenges the traditional hierarchical view that often marginalizes or at times ignores some stakeholders. It advocates for a wider and more consultative perspective where the sustainability of the festival is ensured as it complements the interest and contribution of the wider and often marginalized stakeholder groups.

Key words: Festival stakeholders; Stakeholder theory; Stakeholder differentiation; Stakeholder identification

Address correspondence to Mathilda van Niekerk, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Blvd, Orlando, FL 32819, USA. Tel: (+1) 407 903 8052; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 433-447
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682561070836
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Engaging Volunteers From Regional Communities: Non-Host City Resident Perceptions Towards a Mega-Event and the Opportunity to Volunteer

Sheranne Fairley,* Maria Louise Cardillo,* and Kevin Filo†

*University of Queensland Business School, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
†Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

Sport events can be leveraged by a number of different stakeholders. The current research positions a mega-event as a leverageable asset within a regional community outside of the host city. Specifically, this study investigated regional community (i.e., Townsville) resident perceptions of a mega-event (i.e., 2018 Commonwealth Games) to be hosted elsewhere in the state (i.e., The Gold Coast). Nonhost city resident perceptions towards the event and towards the potential of volunteering at the event were explored 4 years before the event. Data were collected through interviews and focus groups within the non-host city. The results revealed an existent rivalry between the host and non-host community, and a perceived lack of benefit to the non-host region. Further, non-host city resident perceptions towards volunteering at the event included: travel constraints, lack of awareness, volunteer packages, national pride, once in a lifetime experience, and meeting new people from overseas. The results provide implications for managers and government funders of mega-sport events to provide benefits to regional communities. Further, the results provide implications for volunteer managers at mega-sport events to engage members from regional communities through volunteering. 

Key words: Resident perceptions; Mega-events; Non-host city; Regional community; Volunteers; Commonwealth Games

Address correspondence to Sheranne Fairley, Ph.D., University of Queensland Business School, University of Queensland, St. Lucia Campus, Brisbane, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 449-455
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14682560744839
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Situation Awareness in Auto Racing Track Incident Response

Teena M. Garrison

Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA

Incident response at auto racing events requires a different approach to that used in standard emergency response to automobile accidents. Time scales are compressed, and the patterns of incidents are quite different. There may also be spectators in relative proximity to the incident who may be injured by debris and are certain to be a source of distraction during response. Further, the crew members (fire, medical, and vehicle recovery) responding to the incident may have never worked together previously but are now working together under direct observation by race officials and spectators, who introduce greater time pressure and demands on the crews. Insights from previous research in driver behavior and performance in complex domains are extended to track incident response, including consideration of individual and team performance dynamics. 

Key words: Auto racing; Race track management; Incident response; Participant and spectator safety

Address correspondence to Teena Garrison, Center for Advanced Vehicular Systems, Box 5405, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, 39762, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 457-462
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14725707785941
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Chile Decime Que Se Siente: Sports, Conflicts, and Chronicles of Miscarried Hospitality

Maximiliano Korstanje,* Babu P. George,† and Ericka Amorin

*Department of Economics, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina
†Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS, USA
‡Nova University, Campus de Campolide, Lisbon, Portugal

This article examines the complex relationship between war, sports, and hospitality. Citing historical examples involving Argentina and based on primary data collected during the America Cup 2015, it deconstructs the dominant view that tourism fortifies international understanding and peace. Internal stability of many nation-states depends on a contrasting discourse of “our” versus “their” and sports competitions provide a safe arena for this. Also, sporting events can give spectators avenues for mitigating or amplifying bitterness associated with unsavory historical events involving the country of the competing team, depending upon who wins. Based on content analysis of social media posts made by the spectators of America Cup 2015, we identify three clusters, each reflecting a specific implication for international peace.

Key words: Peace; Conflicts; Sports; Tourism; Chile; Argentina

Address correspondence to Maximiliano Korstanje, Department of Economics, University of Palermo, AV Dorrego 169–2 Floor AP F, Buenos Aires, Argentina 1414. Tel: 0054 11 4816 8001; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it