Tourism Analysis 21(5) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 439-450
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14653218477444
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


The Impact of Tourism Revenues on Smoothing the Domestic Output Shocks

Faruk
Balli,*Hatice O. Balli,* and Rosmy Jean Louis§

*School of Economics and Finance, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
†Department of International Trade and Marketing, University of Gediz, Izmir, Turkey
‡Department of Economics, University of Gediz, Izmir, Turkey
§Department of Economics and Finance Faculty of Management, Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, British Colombia, Canada

This article is primarily an empirical work anchored in the well-known theoretical underpinning that consumers maximize utility by choosing the optimal levels of consumption and leisure activities. We improve on the existing literature in differentiating between domestic and foreign leisure activities to determine to what extent domestic consumption of countries in recession is financed by tourism revenues coming from foreign countries experiencing economic growth. In fact, we provide the first empirical evidence that international tourism receipts serve as an important shock absorber to domestic output shocks above and beyond the well-known risk- sharing channels of saving, capital/credit markets, international aid, fiscal transfers, and remittance inflows documented in the literature. We quantify the extent of risk sharing and provide both cross-section and panel data estimates of its likely determinants. The results show that countries that attract tourists from a wider pool of nationalities benefit the most.

Key words: Diversification; International tourism demand; Risk sharing; Tourism receipts

Address correspondence to Faruk Balli, School of Economics and Finance, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North, 4412, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 451-464
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14653218477480
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Residents’ Support in Major Local Events: Leeds Pride

Nikolaos Pappas

London School of Hospitality and Tourism, University of West London, London, UK

This article examines the extent to which community participation and perceived impacts have an influence on residents’ support of major events, more specifically, the Leeds Pride celebration. The research examines the perspectives of 400 Leeds permanent residents. The study tests a structural equation model, which has its theoretical basis in social exchange theory. It examines the constructs of community participation, perceived positive and negative impacts, and community support, including the actual participation of locals in the event. The findings reveal that the actual participation of locals to decision making influences their perspectives on community participation. The support is influenced by views of the perceived impacts, whereas community participation has no direct influence. Conversely, the community involvement in decision making considerably influences the perceived benefits and costs of the event, acting as a moderator, whereas the willingness of support is connected with the community’s participation. Finally, the article discusses theoretical and managerial aspects for major event planning and development.

Key words: Local events; Tourism; Social exchange theory (SET); Community engagement; Perceived impacts; Community support

Address correspondence to Nikolaos Pappas, London School of Hospitality and Tourism, University of West London, Ealing, W5 5RF, London, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 465-479
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14653218477525
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Blogging Slum Tourism: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Travel Blogs

Meghan Muldoon and Heather Mair

Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Modern slum tourism, rooted in the social justice movements of South Africa and Brazil in the early 1990s, has become an increasingly popular practice among tourists looking for experiences off the beaten path. Unsurprisingly, a form of tourism that allows wealthy travelers to experience the “reality” of how poor people live has elicited criticism and controversy. Slum tourism has been lauded as an innovative economic opportunity for poor urban neighborhoods and has been condemned for promoting poverty voyeurism. The first author undertook a critical discourse analysis in the winter of 2013–2014, analyzing slum tourism discourse in travel blogs. Eighteen travel blogs and 36 blogs postings were analyzed using a Foucauldian critical discourse perspective. The study found that travel bloggers use a number of structures of authority and structures of responsibility to convince their readers of the value of this touristic practice and the integrity of the travelers who would choose to participate in slum tourism.

Key words: Slum tourism; Critical discourse analysis (CDA); Travel blogs; Michel Foucault; Responsible tourism

Address correspondence to Meghan L. Muldoon, Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Burt Matthews Hall, 200 University Avenue, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 481-496
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14653218477561
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Consumer Value and Brand Value: Rivals or Allies in Consumer-Based Brand Equity?

Asli D. A. Tasci

Department of Tourism, Events, and Attractions, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

Both consumer value and brand value are two components of consumer-based brand equity (CBBE); however, consumer value has attracted most empirical efforts, and its relation to its fellow—brand value—has been a void in literature thus far. The current study investigated the relations between consumer value and brand value as well as other related concepts, such as nonmonetary costs and perceived price for some tourism destination brands—namely, Orlando and its competitors. Also, the significance of brand value and consumer value is investigated in comparison with other components of CBBE. Results indicated a negative relationship between consumer value and brand value overall, minimal influence of consumer value on consumer loyalty, and no influence of brand value on consumer loyalty for destination brands, except for negligible anomalies.

Key words: Brand value; Consumer value; Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE); Perceived price; Premium price; Cost

Address correspondence to Asli D. A. Tasci, Department of Tourism, Events, and Attractions, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32819, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 497-511
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14653218477606
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Country Personality Scale: Is a Five-Dimensional Model a Better Methodological Instrument?

Carlos Manuel Sucia Burcio,* Rui Vinhas Da Silva, and Maria De Fatima Salgueiro

*Business Research Unit (BRU-IUL), Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE-IUL), Lisbon, Portugal
†Department of Marketing, Operations, and Management, ISCTE Business School–IUL, Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE-IUL), Lisbon, Portugal
‡Department of Quantitative Methods for Management and Economics, ISCTE Business School–IUL, Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE-IUL), Lisbon, Portugal

In this article, we investigate the Country Personality Scale and explore the use of a five-dimensional scale instead of the originally proposed six-dimensional scale and its application for evaluating consumers’ behavioral intentions. The aim of this article is to evaluate the Country Personality Scale and to adapt it to the Portuguese context, proposing a model anchored in a reduced Country Personality Scale. Pretest (a sample of 115 Brazilians) and main survey data (685 responses from Sao Paulo and Bahia states in Brazil) are considered. Portugal is the stimulus country. The proposed research model relating the country’s personality dimensions to its behavioral intentions to visit is estimated using structural equation modeling with AMOS, and the research hypotheses are tested. The results suggest that five dimensions (agreeableness, assiduousness, conformity, snobbism, and unobtrusiveness) should be considered when measuring country personality. There is a perception that this scale is a useful instrument for a quantitative approach to measuring a country personality construct and its impact on behavioral intentions, which can help researchers and marketers address international and cross-cultural marketing issues. Based on the main survey data, subjected to the personality trait frequency analysis, Portugal is classified as a conformist country.

Key words: Country personality; Behavioral intentions; Portugal; Brazil

Address correspondence to Carlos Manuel Sucia Burcio, Business Research Unit (BRU-IUL), Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE-IUL), Av. Das Forcas Armadas, 1649-026, Lisbon, Portugal. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 513-527
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14653218477651
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Aesthetic and Restorative Qualities of Vacation Destinations: How are They Related?

Ksenia
Kirillova* and Xinran Lehto

*School of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
†School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

Given a dearth of scholarly attention to the relationship of destination aesthetic and restorative qualities, this research investigates the connection between destination aesthetic and restorative qualities. It also explores the interrelationship between restorative and aesthetic qualities in nature-based and urban destinations. Associations between destination aesthetic qualities (Locale Characteristics, Scope, Upkeep, Accord, Perceived Age, and Shape) and restorative qualities (Compatibility, Extent, Mentally Away, Physically Away, Discord, and Fascination) were estimated by canonical correlation analysis. In nature-based destinations, the results illuminate the criticality of experiential characteristics of nature aesthetics to perceived destination restorative qualities and of fascination to destination aesthetic qualities. In urban destinations, findings indicate the importance of experiential characteristics of destinations and compatibility of tourists’ needs and predispositions to vacation destination characteristics. Implications to tourism experience design are discussed.

Key words: Destination management; Tourism experience; Restoration; Tourism aesthetics; Attention restoration theory (ART)

Address correspondence to Ksenia Kirillova, School of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 17 Science Museum Road, TH 608 TST East, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 529-540
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14653218477688
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Reconceptualizing
Overall Visitor Satisfaction as an Average of Satisfaction With Attributes

Ross H. Taplin

School
of Accounting, Curtin Business School, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, Australia

The tourism, management, and marketing literature debates the meaning of consumer satisfaction with a product or service, including methods for identifying factors influencing satisfaction. This methodological article adds to this literature by reconceptualizing overall satisfaction with a product or service as a weighted average of the satisfaction with its attributes or components. This is particularly valuable for researchers and managers investigating which attributes of a product or service have the greatest influence on overall satisfaction. Existing models are reconceptualized in this way, new models are introduced, and an equality F test is proposed as a goodness-of-fit test. This reconceptualization is shown to have considerable merit in terms of fit to data and interpretability of results, whereas the equality F test provides a previously unavailable test of whether important determinants of satisfaction have been modeled inadequately or whether important attributes have been omitted altogether from the visitor survey. The new methodology is illustrated using a survey of 322 visitors at an Australian metropolitan zoo.

Key words: Relative importance; Direct importance; Satisfaction models; IPA; Equality F test

Address correspondence to Ross H. Taplin, School of Accounting, Curtin Business School, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 541-547
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14653218477723
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Research Note

May I Have Your Name Please? Norfolk Island Hotel Names

Joshua Nash

School of Behavioural, Cognitive, and Social Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia

The role of hotel names has not been examined in detail in tourism and language research. A list of 52 Norfolk Island hotel names are analyzed. Findings suggest the names perpetuate the stage and staging of tourism and their (in)accurate persistence within Norfolk cultural domains. Hotel names and their concomitant stories simultaneously illuminate and obfuscate socially driven truths and complex cultural history. The toponymy of hotel naming serves to reconcile several contentious domains of the linguistics and culture of Norfolk Island.

Key words: Linguistic landscape; Naming; Norfolk Island language; Place-names; Toponymy; Tourism

Address correspondence to Joshua Nash, School of Behavioural, Cognitive, and Social Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 549-554
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14653218477769
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Research Note

Revisiting Destination Choice Sets: Two Evaluation Modes

Jin Young Chung* and James F. Petrick

*Division of International Business, Incheon National University, Incheon, South Korea
†Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

This study revisited destination choice sets. Two distinct choice modes—joint evaluation (considering multiple destinations for a pleasure trip) and separate evaluation (considering only one destination when searching for information)—were identified. Findings revealed that women, repeated visitors, and affluent tourists living out of state were more likely to take a separate evaluation mode. Conversely, tourists who frequently took overnight trips and in-state residents were more likely to consider multiple options. Results suggest that tourism professionals should tailor marketing information that best fits each segment instead of merely sending out general information.

Key words: Choice sets; Conversion rate; Destination marketing; Evaluation modes

Address correspondence to Jin Young Chung, Division of International Business, Incheon National University, 119, Academy-ro, Incheon, South Korea, 406-772. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it