Tourism Review International 20(2-3) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 73-90
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14713104855810
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Analysis of Push and Pull Motivators Investigated in Medical Tourism Research Published From 2000 to 2016

Surej P. John and Roy Larke

Department of Marketing, Waikato Management School, The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand

Medical tourism is growing in many parts of the world. As such, it should not be surprising that there is a growing body of literature focusing on the nature of scope of this tourism sector. One subset of this literature involves the motivations that tourists have to travel outside their home country for medical care. To develop a better understanding of these motivations, this study investigates the motivators most commonly used in medical tourism research and classifies them with regard to whether they are push or pull motivators. The results reveal that some of the most commonly used pull motivators include lower medical costs, service quality, international accreditation of the medical facilities, and shorter waiting times, while the least commonly used include reputation of the medical practitioners and tourists’ social and cultural familiarities with the destinations. With regard to push motivators, the most commonly used are recommendations from friends, doctors, and family, inadequate insurance coverage, and desire for privacy and confidentiality of treatments. The least commonly used are lack of treatment options and distrust in home-country healthcare systems. The study concludes with a discussion of the managerial implications of these results and provides recommendations for further research in the areas of medical tourism.

Key words: Medical tourism; Push and pull motivation; Literature review

Address correspondence to Surej P. John, Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, Waikato Management School, The University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand 3216. Tel: 064 7838 9272; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 91-101
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14713104855856
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Expenditure-Based Segmentation: A Case Analysis of Attendees to a Youth Festival in South Africa

Martinette Kruger and Melville Saayman

TREES (Tourism Research in Economic Environs and Society), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa

This case analysis applies expenditure-based segmentation to the Samsung Rage Festival in South Africa, a major youth festival. Results reveal that that expenditure levels are associated with a number of socioeconomic as well as numerous travel characteristics. Overall, it is shown that knowledge of the spending behavior of youth travelers can assist festival administrators in developing programs that reflect the characteristics of the three expenditure segments studied. Directions for further examination in this research stream are provided.

Key words: Expenditure-based segmentation; Youth festival; Youth travel; South Africa

Address correspondence to Martinette Kruger, TREES, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa, 2531.Tel: +27 18 299 1980; Fax: +27 18 299 4140; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 103-121
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14713104855937
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

From Perception to Action: A Segmentation Study Based on Local Residents’ Attitude Toward Tourism Development

Bình Nghiêm-Phú

Department of Business Communication, Fukushima National College of Technology, Fukushima, Japan

This study measured the attitude toward tourism development of local residents in Vietnam. Applying the three-component model of the attitude structure (cognitive perception, affective perception, and action), the study found that Vietnamese local residents’ perception of the attributes of their country as a tourism destination (i.e., destination image) was favorable; their evaluations of the support for tourism options were positive. Inferential analysis further revealed that the perception components could significantly affect the action component of the attitude construct in the whole sample. However, the significance degrees of the correlation between perceptions and action varied among the member clusters of the sample. The theoretical and practical implications of the study were discussed with a reference to the internal marketing theory.

Key words: Attitude; Perception; Action; Local resident; Vietnam

Address correspondence to Binh Nghiem-Phu, Ph.D., Department of Business Communication, Fukushima National College of Technology, 30 Nagao Kamiarakawa Taira, Iwaki, Fukushima, Japan. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 123-142
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14724915340080
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourists’ Experiences of Recreation Spaces in Australia’s Wet Tropics

Amy M. Osmond and Tingzhen Chen

College of Business, Law and Governance, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia

People are increasingly engaging in recreational activities in nature. However, preferences for recreation opportunities are changing over time and among different people. Furthermore, different settings offer unique combinations of attributes; these attributes generate occasions for tourists to achieve particular recreation experiences, albeit tourists create experiences differently. The current study investigated tourists’ travel reviews of recreation opportunities in Australia’s Wet Tropics. Drawing on two land and activity categorization systems, the research explored tourists’ reported experiences and interests across different natural environment leisure settings. The overall objective of the article was to explore the setting–experience relationship by identifying differences in tourists’ reported experiences according to setting attributes and personal characteristics. Leximancer analysis of over 2,000 TripAdvisor reviews (posted 2010–2012) was conducted on 11 tourist attractions in far north Queensland. Overall, tourists describe their experiences of different Wet Tropics’ leisure settings in a relatively similar manner, with some distinctive features highlighted for each attraction. In particular, tourists commented about a variety of visit components including natural elements, supporting infrastructure, experiential aspects, as well as their feelings/impressions. Furthermore, differences were noticed when the attraction visits were explored according to various personal characteristics. Findings from the study offer useful directions in further developing, promoting, and managing Wet Tropics attractions that offer diverse experiences in different recreation settings.

Key words: Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (ROS); Preferences of Recreationists (PoR); Wet Tropics; Tourist experience; TripAdvisor

Address correspondence to Amy M. Osmond, Postdoctoral Researcher, College of Business, Law and Governance, James Cook University, 1 James Cook Drive, Townsville, Queensland, Australia 4811. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 143-153
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14724915340125
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Qatar World Cup 2022: Awareness of the Event and Its Impact on Destination and Country Character Perceptions in The US Tourism Market

Kyriaki (Kiki) Kaplanidou,* Ahmed Al-Emadi,† Stavros Triantafyllidis,* Michael Sagas,* And Abdoulaye Diop

*Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
†Social and Economic Survey Research Institute, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

This study examined how awareness levels of hosting the 2022 World Cup in Qatar changed perceptions of Qatar’s destination image, country character, and neighboring destinations’ images. Data were collected through Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online consumer panel comprised of people residing in the US with an Amazon.com account and willing to participate in the surveys. The results revealed that higher awareness of the 2022 World Cup being hosted in Qatar improved host destination image perceptions, selective regional country perceptions, country character and relevant behaviors to either travel to Qatar for vacation, for interest to travel to attend the event, or to watch the event on TV. Implications involve strategies to create higher awareness for the destination using the mega-sport event platform for promotions.

Key words: 2022 Qatar; World Cup; Country character; Destination image; Tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Kyriaki (Kiki) Kaplanidou, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, PO Box 118208, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Tel: 352-294-1668; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 155-163
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14713104855892
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Inbound, Expat, and Domestic Climbers: A Segment-Based Expenditure Analysis of Mount Fuji’s Summer Season

Thomas E. Jones,* Yang Yang,† and Kiyotatsu Yamamoto‡

*Graduate School of Governance Studies, Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan
†School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
‡Environmental Sciences for Sustainability, Iwate University, Morioka, Japan

The numbers of postmillennium international tourists to Japan have increased exponentially, and behavioral differences compared to domestic visitors pose challenges for management. Despite this practical need, few studies have focused on expenditure comparison of existing and emerging visitor segments. This analysis of Mount Fuji’s 2008 summer season investigates consumer behavior of inbound tourists, expatriates, and domestic segments via an intercept survey of 927 descending climbers. Findings show that domestic climbers, who preferred package tour or car access, had the highest total expenditure (¥17,190), followed by expats (¥13,500), predominantly young males that made fewer mountain hut stays. Inbound climbers spent the least (¥9,818), tending to use public transport to access Fuji as one destination on a broader vacation itinerary. Following Fuji’s UNESCO World Heritage listing and the subsequent introduction of a ¥1,000 (US$10) donation for climbers in 2013, this article provides retrospective, microlevel insights into consumer behavior among Fuji’s diversifying segments.

Key words: Market segmentation; Diversification; Inbound; Expenditure; Mount Fuji; Mountain climbers

Address correspondence to Thomas E. Jones, Graduate School of Governance Studies, Meiji University, TA Jimbocho Building, Research Laboratory 501, 1-1 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan 101-0064. Tel: +81-3-5217-9443; Fax: +81-3-5217-9402; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 20, pp. 165-174
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/154427216X14713104855973
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Beyond Access: Accessibility-Related Online Information

Isabel Sanchez and Carla A. Santos

Department of Recreation, Sport, and Tourism, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA

The current study provides an exploratory analysis of the accessibility-related content concerning facilities and services provided by accommodation establishments in the top 10 most livable US cities for wheelchair users. By addressing a significant gap in the literature, this study provides greater contextualization of the challenges identified in extant work, as well as identifies opportunities for growth, development, and advocacy surrounding the nexus of tourism and disability, and advances a call for more comprehensive facilities, services, and accessibility information.

Key words: Disabilities; Online information; Accessibility

Address correspondence to Carla A. Santos, Ph.D., Department of Recreation, Sport, and Tourism, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 Huff Hall, 1206 South Fourth Street, Champaign, IL 61820, USA. Tel: +1 (217) 244-3874; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it