Event Management 20(4) Abstracts

Return to Event Management>

Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 467-476
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14229071393133
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Promotional Factors Affecting Potential College Student Consumer’s Decisions to Attend Minor League Baseball Games

Alyssa L. Tavormina* and Doyeon Won†

*Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
†Department of Sport and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea

This study explored different types of promotions within the selected factors (game day, distance, ticket price discount, concession discount, giveaway, and special event), their influence on a potential consumer’s choice of attending a Minor League Baseball (MiLB) game, and the influences of consumption situation (attending with friends versus significant other). Two hypothetical consumption situations were used to examine college students’ (
N = 201) preferences of promotional situations. Conjoint analyses indicated that the relative importance of all factors did not largely depend on the consumption situation. However, there was a significant difference of the consumer’s decision to attend based on the type of promotion within each factor. This study encourages sport managers of MiLB teams to consider these types of promotions that most affect the potential consumer’s decision to attend games.

Key words: Event attributes; Promotion factors; Conjoint analysis; Minor League Baseball; Event attendance

Address correspondence to Doyeon Won, Ph.D., Department of Sport and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-roSeodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749, Korea. Tel: (82+2) 2123-6191; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 477-489
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14745497664316
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Continuing to Bridge the Academic–Practitioner Divide: Development of the General Parsimonious Scale (Gps) for Spectator Sports

Sophia Deulre Min,* Tzushuo Ryan Wang,† and Woong Kwon

*University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA, USA
†Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA
Hoseo University, Asan-siChungcheongnam-do, South Korea

The academic and practical sides of the sport industry have exhibited different preferences for measurement tools. Practitioners tend to adopt concise instruments that are economical to administer. However, many practice-oriented studies are often viewed by academics as deficient in scientific rigor. These different preferences for scale development and usage have created the so-called“academic-practitioner divide.” Following the earlier initiative to bridge this division, this present study developed the General Parimonious Scale (GPS) to assess four components of sport events that can affect consumers’ game attendance decision. An extensive literature review made it possible to select a small set of indicators measuring four dimensions of sport events without suffering theoretical rigor. The GPS indicates appropriate psychometric properties and exhibits appropriate explanatory ability, providing both academics and practitioners with a reliable and concise instrument that can be applied to measure different components of sport events.

Key words: Spectator sports; Game attractiveness; General Parsimonious Scale (GPS)

Address correspondence to Dr. Woong Kwon, Research Professor, Hoseo University, Hoseo-ro 79 beon-gilbaebang-dup, Asan-siChungcheongnam-do, South Korea. Tel: 82-41-540-9659; Fax: 82-41-540-5882; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 491-499
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14745497664352
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Social Identity in Serious Sport Event Space

Insun Sunny Lee,* Graham Brown,* Katherine King,† and Richard Shipway†

*School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia
†Faculty of Management, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, UK

Sport events offer valuable experiences in distinctive settings, and serve as settings for social identity formation. Drawing on the literature from a range of disciplines, events characteristics are seen to provide spaces for the cocreation of values, liminality, communitas, flow experiences, and authenticity. It is suggested that sport events facilitate career progression in relation to serious leisure and the development of social identification. This article provides further insight about the nature of event experiences with implications for event management.

Key words: Serious leisure; Serious sport tourism; Sport event; Event experience; Event travel career trajectory

Address correspondence to Insun Sunny Lee, Ph.D., Lecturer in Event and Tourism Management, School of Management, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia. Tel: +61 8 8302 7664; Fax: +61 8 8302 0512; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 501-515
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14745497664398
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Economic Impact of Event Attendees’ Spending on a Host Region: A Review of the Research

Grzegorz Kwiatkowski

Department of Tourism and Marketing, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland

This literature review attempts a systematic and organized overview of the relevant literature on the economic impact of attendees’ consumption at sporting events. The discussion focuses on (a) how and to what extent events may influence travel and spending behavior of persons living “in” (locals) and “outside” (nonlocals) the region under investigation, and (b) what is the economic stimulus for the host region of event-related money flows from both groups’ consumption. According to the economic effects on the local economy, expenditures made by both groups—locals and nonlocals—are categorized as positive, neutral, or negative. Furthermore, based on a theoretical discussion based on the review, a practical framework for determining the composition of event attendees according to their primary economic stimulus to a host region is presented. Finally, avenues for future research are identified.

Key words: Economic impact analysis; Primary spending; Events; Literature review

Address correspondence to Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Ph.D., Department of Tourism and Marketing, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland. Tel: +48 94 34-39-164; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 517-535
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14745497664433
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Critical Incidents, Emotions, and Value-Added Moments: The London 2012 Spectator Experience

Paul R. Emery,* Anthony K. Kerr,* and Ruth M. Crabtree†

*Department of Management, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
†Department of Sport Development, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

In an increasingly complex and demanding sport event environment, spectators expect to fulfill their insatiable hedonistic needs through engaging in memorable customer experiences. However, experience creation and management suffer poor conceptualization and contextualization. Using the case study of London 2012 Olympic spectator experiences and applying a range of mixed-methods tools, this exploratory study advances the emerging research agenda on understanding the nature of critical incidents and accompanying emotions, as well as the value-added moments of a memorable hedonistic sport spectator experience. The study findings reveal the valence of critical incidents and emotions, identify when and where they occur, and suggest that spectators want to engage with a series of highly interactive and multimoments that include building, watching, being in, capturing, and sharing the moment. Determining the value-added and value-destructive drivers of memorable consumption encounters can help event managers exceed desired levels of service expectation, and facilitate the delivery of superior customer experiences.

Key words: Olympics; Critical incidents; Emotions; Event experiences; Value-added moments; Spectators

Address correspondence to Paul R. Emery, Department of Management, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia. Tel: + 61 3 94357 353; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 537-563
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14745497664479
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Emergence of “Small-Scale” Sport Events in “Small Island” Developing States: Towards Creating Sustainable Outcomes for Island Communities

Vassilios Ziakas* and Nikolaos Boukas

*Sport & Health Sciences, University of St Mark & St John, Plymouth, UK
†Center for Sustainable Management of Tourism, Sport and Events (CESMATSE), European University Cyprus, Engomi, Cyprus

Although academic literature has examined sport events in urban and rural communities, there is limited research on the forces and dynamics that influence the sustainability of sport events in islands. Cyprus represents a small island developing state with an embryonic event industry, which poses the question whether the emergence of new events can contribute to its sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of two nascent sport events: the “Limassol Marathon” and the “Tour of Cyprus Cycling Challenge,” focusing on their prospects for creating strategic outcomes that can contribute to the sustainability and rejuvenation of Cyprus as a tourism destination. The study employed a triangulation research technique through the application of mixed methods, conducting first semistructured interviews with event organizers, and thereafter a survey examining the perceived experiences of event participants. Findings illustrate the interrelationships of new small-scale events that can amplify their synergistic value by enabling the achievement of multiple purposes. Implications are drawn concerning the synergistic value of small-scale sport events and the strategic processes for creating a range of sustainable event outcomes.

Key words: Small-scale events; Marathon; Cycling; Small island states; Sustainability; Community development; Tourism development; Sustainable event outcomes

Address correspondence to Vassilios Ziakas, Associate Professor in Sport Management, Faculty of Sport & Health Sciences, University of St Mark & St John, Derriford Road, Plymouth, PL6 8BH Devon, UK. Tel: +44 [0] 1752 636700; Fax: +44 [0] 1752-636820; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 565-591
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14745497664514
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Study of Exhibition Service Quality, Perceived Value, Emotion, Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intentions

Hung-Che Wu,* Ching-Chan Cheng,† and Chi-Han Ai*

*Business School, Nanfang College of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China
†Department of Food & Beverage Management, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, Taipei City, Taiwan

This study aims at identifying the dimensions of exhibition service quality and examines the interrelationships among exhibition service quality, perceived value, emotions, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions for exhibition attendees. Data were collected using a convenience sample of 596 attendees who were leaving the 4th Macau International Education Expo (MIEE) in the Venetian Macau Resort Hotel
. The findings indicate that there are 4 primary dimensions and 13 subdimensions of exhibition service quality perceived by exhibition attendees. The results of this study will assist exhibition management in developing and implementing market-orientated service strategies to increase exhibition service quality, enhance satisfaction, and create favorable future behavioral intentions.

Key words: Exhibition service quality dimensions; Satisfaction; Behavioral intentions; Multidimensional and hierarchical model; Exhibition attendees

Address correspondence to Dr. Hung-Che Wu, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Business School, Nanfang College of Sun Yat-sen University, Wen Quan Town, Conghua, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China 510970. Tel: +86-13533567158; Fax: +86-2061787368; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 593-605
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14745497664550
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Predicting International Visitors’ Interest in Hong Kong Arts Festival

Stephen Boyle,* Carmen Reaiche,† Abm Abdullah,‡ and MD Wahid Murad§

*Business School, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
†ECIC, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
‡School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
§UniSA College, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia

Major international arts festivals are responsible for attracting many international visitors to a location. This study proposes that the high profile major international acts that are programmed within a particular festival play an important role in attracting international visitors to the event. This empirical study was conducted to predict the demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral factors of international visitors that could influence their interest in attending performances of international artists (i.e., those imported for the event) that had taken place at the Hong Kong Arts Festival. It employs descriptive statistics, paired samples
t test, and logistic regression as analytical techniques in order to achieve the above objective. A total of 129 samples were drawn randomly from both male and female international visitors. The results from t tests, which generated two-variable correlation coefficient values with corresponding levels of statistical significance, suggest that the show event that most significantly (p ≤ 0.05) influenced international visitors’ attendance was the Northern Sinfonia and Chorus, and the Latvian National Opera: Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk was the second most important show event. The results from the logistic regression model suggest that international visitors’ interest, in particular international performances, was mostly influenced by their demographic and behavioral factors, but not by their attitudinal factors. This study suggests that relevant programming strategies should consider why, at which degree, and how the demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral factors of international visitors are important to attracting them to and to increasing their interest in the arts festivals of this kind. Although the main limitation of this study is the use of a small subset of samples, further research could overcome this by considering a larger sample size and looking into the demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral factors of international or local visitors that could influence their interest in some other arts festival events/shows showcasing local artists and productions.

Key words: Arts festivals; International visitors’ interest; International artists; Demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral factors; Logistic regression; Hong Kong Arts Festival

Address correspondence to Dr. MD Wahid Murad, UniSA College, University of South Australia, David Pank Building, Level 2, 160 Currie Street, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Tel: +61 8 8302 0384; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 20, pp. 607-622
1525-9951/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14745497664550
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC. 
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Resident Valuation of Planned Events: An Event Portfolio Pilot Study

David Gration,*† Maria Raciti,* Donald Getz,‡ and Tommy D. Andersson§

*School of Business, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia
†School of Business, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
‡University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
§School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

Residents of the Sunshine Coast region in Queensland, Australia, were surveyed on the subject of planned events in their region with the main aim of determining how and why they value events. It was revealed that residents gained considerable
use value from events that they attended as audience or otherwise participated in, expressed strong support for a range of events (with a preference for community festivals), and overall did not believe that problems or costs were serious. Residents also indicated strong nonuse values (being existence, option, and bequest values) for events in general. Our findings are positioned within the body of literature concerning impact assessment (specifically, resident perceptions and attitudes towards events), valuation (i.e., the worth of events), and policy and strategy concerning community events and event tourism.

Key words: Resident perceptions and attitudes; Event portfolios; Valuing events; Public funding

Address correspondence to David Gration, Ph.D., Box 211, Caloundra, 4551, Queensland, Australia. Tel: +61 (7) 5499-7578; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it