Tourism Analysis 21(6) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 559-576
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14713487283002
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Synergistic Social Network Analysis: A Synergistic Approach to Qualitative and Quantitative Network Analysis

Matias Thuen Jørgensen

School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Network analysis in tourism is characterized by a quantitative–qualitative dichotomy, and a more synergistic approach to the field is needed. This article proposes a new network analysis method—synergistic social network analysis (SSNA)—which aims to create such synergies. SSNA involves ways to easily collect both qualitative and quantitative data as well as tools and considerations that build on and develop synergies between qualitative and quantitative perspectives. SSNA is therefore an approach that is more than the sum of its qualitative and quantitative data parts. On a broader level, an important part of SSNA is to create an iterative synergistic way of applying meaning to data, which is not exclusively influenced by traditional qualitative–quantitative epistemologies. SSNA was developed and tested on the basis of a study of six Danish destinations. This application and its evaluation indicate specific methodological and theoretical advantages compared to more traditional dichotomous approaches and demonstrate strong advantages within the study context. Examples of methodological and theoretical advantages include the following: identification of qualitative data collection convergence through quantitative data; quantitative structural perspectives combined with qualitative perspectives on the rationale behind the numbers potentially leading to crystallization; structural tools that can “zoom in” on Central Network Cliques, which enable the researcher to have a qualitative focus on central parts of the network; and quantitative visualizations that create a manageable backdrop on which to base communication of more complex in-depth results to researchers and practitioners. On a more abstract level, the article points to the relevant discussion of how we assimilate knowledge, arguing for a stronger focus on alternatives to the dichotomous qualitative–quantitative approach and for a greater literacy of mixed synergetic methods among tourism researchers.

Key words: Tourism; Network analysis; Synergistic social network analysis (SSNA); Qualitative; Quantitative

Address correspondence to Matias Thuen Jørgensen, School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 17 Science Museum Road, TST East, Kowloon, Hong Kong. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 577-588
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14713487283048
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Antecedents of Tourists’ Behavioral Intentions: The Role and Influence of Tourists’ Perceived Freedom of Choice, Destination Image, and Satisfaction

Xiaoming (Rose) Liu,* Jun (Justin) Li,† and Yi (David) Fu*

*Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Macau, China
†College of Business, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA

A theory-based pattern is assessed in this article, examining the relationships among three concepts—traveler perceived freedom of choice, destination image, and satisfaction—that are the antecedents of travelers’ behavioral intentions. More specifically, this study aims at finding the influence of travelers’ perceived freedom of choice (including food, trip mode, travel time, route, and activity) on their image perception, degree of satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Based on confirmatory factor analysis, the reliability and the effectiveness of the survey were assessed. Using information based on the research of outbound travelers from Mainland China, a structural equation model with maximum likelihood estimation was made to determine the relationships. According to these findings, the more favorable destination image, higher level of tourist satisfaction, higher intention to revisit, and higher willingness to recommend can be achieved by offering more options to travelers. In terms of the theoretical and practical significance of tourism, these research results serve as a vital inspirational and influential element.

Key words: Perceived freedom of choice; Destination image; Satisfaction; Behavioral intentions

Address correspondence to Jun (Justin) Li, College of Business, Florida State University, 2200 UCB, 821 Academic Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306-1110, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 589-602
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14713487283075
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Segmentation by Tourist Expenditure Composition: An Approach With Compositional Data Analysis and Latent Classes

Berta Ferrer-RosellGermà Coenders, and Esther Martínez-Garcia

Department of Economics, University of Girona, Girona, Spain

In this article, we propose segmenting tourists according to trip budget share (in other words, the proportions of total expenditure devoted to different items, such as transportation, accommodation, and activities undertaken). We put forward a method involving a combination of compositional data analysis (CODA) and mixture models (latent class models), which, by contrast with traditional methods (e.g., cluster analysis), makes it possible to carry out statistical inference with regard to segment characteristics and their relationships with external variables, such as tourist background. The way we use the CODA methodology is intuitively appealing and boils down to building transformed variables that can be tailored to the specific research questions. We analyze the spending profiles of tourists arriving in Spain on low-cost carriers, with relevant and interpretable results.

Key words: Compositional data analysis (CODA); Latent class models; Tourist expenditure; Segmentation; Budget share

Address correspondence to Berta Ferrer-Rosell, Department of Economics, University of Girona, Faculty Building of Tourism, Edifici Sant DomènecPlaça Ferrater Mora, 1, 17071 Girona, Spain. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 603-616
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14713487283129
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


How Tourist Attraction Agglomeration Affects a Regional Tourism Economy

Bo Zhou,* Hailin Qu,*† and Ningqiao Li*

*Department of Tourism and Hotel Administration, Management School, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, China
†School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration, College of Human Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

According to agglomeration theory, tourist attraction agglomeration can enhance the performance of tourism economy in a region. In contrast, industrial organization theory suggests that tourist attraction agglomeration can harm economic performance. This study examines the impact of tourist attraction agglomeration on a regional tourism economy using empirical evidence. China has experienced a proliferation of tourist attractions in the last 15 years. In 2000, only 590 A-class tourist attractions were part of the tourism market; however, by 2012, the number of A-class tourist attractions had increased to 6,042, providing a good opportunity for estimating the impact of agglomeration. The study results show a positive relationship between tourist attraction agglomeration and the performance of a regional tourism economy, suggesting that agglomeration theory holds up in the real world. Some implications for regional tourism planning and tourism development are derived.

Key words: Tourist attraction agglomeration (TAA); Regional tourism economy; Synergy effect; Panel data; China

Address correspondence to Bo Zhou, Department of Tourism and Hotel Administration, Management School, Xiamen University, 422-25, South Siming Road, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, China, 361005. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 617-629
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14713487283165
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Tourism, Quality of Life, and Residents of a Rural Town

Abel Duarte Alonso* and Julie Nyanjom

*School of Business, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia
†Faculty of Regional Professional Studies, Edith Cowan University (South West Campus), Bunbury, Western Australia, Australia

Numerous studies have discussed the potential impacts of tourism on residents’ quality of life (QOL). Despite this rich body of research, some researchers have identified the need to investigate this dimension using a qualitative approach as well as in rural areas where tourism is under development. Partly in response to these calls, the present study uses the case of a Western Australian town to investigate QOL through the lens of social exchange theory. Through focus groups, face-to-face interviews, and online questionnaires, qualitative data were gathered among the town’s residents. Overall, the impacts of tourism on participants’ QOL are positive. Four predominant exchanges related to QOL from tourism’s effects emerged: economic, bonding, material, and cultural. Although economic exchanges—including job creation and income—are the main triggers of QOL, bonding exchanges—through volunteering and attending events—are also considered as fundamental. This study discusses key implications and suggests future research avenues.

Key words: Social exchange theory (SET); QOL; Tourism; Residents; Businesses; Western Australia

Address correspondence to Abel Duarte Alonso, School of Business, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, 6027 Western Australia, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 631-644
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14713487283200
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Practical Sales Forecasting: Potential Solutions for Independently Owned Hotels

Ekaterina Sorokina,* Kelly Semrad,* and Brian Mills†

*Department of Tourism, Events, and Attractions, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
†Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

In 2013, 80% of the total hotel closures in the US were independently owned hotel properties. The impact of external factors coupled with the inability of independently owned properties to adapt quickly to a complex operating environment results in high uncertainty of future operations and reduced competitiveness. However, the preservation of this sector is a necessary condition for the lodging industry given that 49% of the worldwide room supply is independently owned and managed. Therefore, the primary objectives of this research study are to increase awareness and the need for research regarding the importance of the independently owned hotel sector and to provide managers of these properties with forecasting tools that may enhance hotels’ competitiveness. The operational challenges of independently hotels are unique as well as their needs. Accordingly, potential challenges of these properties are reviewed to stress the need for forecasting and to determine tools that are reliable and at the same time account for the challenges unique to independent hotels. The comparison of strengths and weaknesses of commonly used forecasting tools shows that time series models may be both reliable and practical for the managers of independently owned hotels to use.

Key words: Forecasting; Practical; Time series; Independent hotels; Competitiveness

Address correspondence to Ekaterina Sorokina, Department of Tourism, Events, and Attractions, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32819, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 645-660
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14713487283246
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Theory of Vulnerability and Remarkable Resilience of Tourism Demand to Climate Change: Evidence From the Mediterranean Basin

Tarik Dogru,* Umit Bulut,† and Ercan Sirakaya-Turk‡

*School of Hospitality Administration, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA
†Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir, Turkey
‡College of Hospitality, Retail, and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Climate change has become one of the most important challenges for societies around the world. However, the tourism industry’s vulnerability and readiness to cope with climate change are unclear. This study advances the current body of knowledge by conceptualizing and empirically analyzing the effects of climate change on tourism demand using a vulnerability theoretical framework. Specifically, the effects of exposure; sensitivity; human well-being; and economic, social, and political development are tested on 17 countries located in the Mediterranean Basin during the period of 1995–2012. The findings of the study demonstrate the remarkable resilience and adaptive capacity of the tourism industry. Contrary to the notion that climate change will result in disastrous outcomes for the tourism industry in the Mediterranean Basin, improvements in overall well-being and progress in economic, social, and political developments seem to more than offset the decline in tourism demand due to climate change. The findings point to new theoretical and practical implications for coping with negative climatic changes and advance future academic research in the area.

Key words: Vulnerability theory; Resilience; Climate change effects; Demand

Address correspondence to Tarik Dogru, School of Hospitality Administration, Boston University, 928 Commonwealth Avenue, Room 315, Boston, MA 02215, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 661-668
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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14713487283282
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


RESEARCH NOTE

Detecting Latent Classes in Tourism Data Through Response-Based Unit Segmentation (Rebus) in PLS-SEM

Guy Assaker* and Rob Hallak

*Adnan Kassar School of Business, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
†School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

This research note describes Response-Based Unit Segmentation (REBUS), a “latent class detection” technique used in partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to examine data heterogeneity. The research note is presented in two parts: Part A presents an overview of REBUS, including its development, algorithm, and its primary functions. Part B demonstrates the application of REBUS in examining a validated tourism model of destination image, satisfaction, and destination loyalty. The example shows how REBUS is used to examine variances in a structural equation model, to detect “classes,” and to profile and understand the heterogeneous groups in an SEM context. REBUS is powerful in uncovering variances and possible moderators in structural models, especially when the data are cross-sectional, heterogeneous, and multivariate nonnormal. Finally, the research note demonstrates how REBUS detects classes in models with higher order (multidimensional) constructs, which are often the case in tourism research.

Key words: REBUS; PLS-SEM; Latent class detection; Heterogeneity; Tourism models

Address correspondence to Rob Hallak, School of Management, University of South Australia, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 669-673
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14713487283327
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


RESEARCH NOTE

Added Value of a Destination Brand Name Calculated By Crimmins’s Method

Asli D. A. Tasci

Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

There are many different value concepts in the current literature. This research note tests the viability of Crimmins’s method of calculating additional value of a brand name for a destination product as opposed to its competitors. A large data set from an online survey is analyzed to investigate the additional value of a destination brand: Orlando in comparison with some competitor destinations in the US. Results show that Crimmins’s method may actually be useful to calculate the additional value of a destination brand name compared to other destinations offering similar offerings.

Key words: Brand value; Added value; Price; Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE); Destination; Orlando

Address correspondence to Asli D. A. Tasci, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32819, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 21, pp. 675-680
1083-5423/16 $60.00 +.00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/108354216X
14713487283363
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


RESEARCH NOTE

Billboards and Tourism in the Missouri Ozarks: Boon or Blight?

Mark Morgan

Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA

Billboards are a common form of roadside advertising because information can be conveyed to a target population in a timely and cost-effective manner. Although designed to increase profit, many individuals find billboards to be a source of visual pollution and argue for their removal. The issue is divisive, pitting usefulness against aesthetics. A pilot study was conducted to (1) count the total number of billboards along a 50-mile portion of US Highway 65 between Springfield and Branson, Missouri, and (2) determine whether these messages influenced tourist behavior. Out of 230 advertisements, 46 (20%) were for live shows and performances. Results from this study suggest that billboards played a minor role in visitors’ ticket purchase behavior. Decisions regarding billboard advertising should be made by the live entertainment industry in Branson, not using subjective arguments that focus exclusively on aesthetics.

Key words: Billboards; Advertising; Aesthetics; Tourism; Ozarks

Address correspondence to Mark Morgan, Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, University of Missouri, 105 Anheuser-Busch Natural Resources Building, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it