Tourism Culture & Communication 16(3) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 97-107
1098-304X/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X14750895902710
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Power of Words at Mega-Event Opening Ceremonies

Mitja Gorenak and Jasna Potočnik Topler

Faculty of Tourism, University of Maribor, Slovenia

This article analyzes the opening speech of John Furlong, CEO of the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games, at the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games. The main idea here is the great importance of a speech at the opening ceremony of a mega-event. The characteristics of the speech were analyzed through the speaker’s choice of words (figures of speech and rhetorical devices). The role of the speech was analyzed to show how the main event concept is promoted. The research is divided into two parts. The first presents a review of the literature and of other relevant resources such as video material and web pages as a basis for preparing the theoretical part of the article. In the second, more empirically oriented part of the article, we conducted a linguistic analysis involving an in-depth discourse analyses of John Furlong’s speech and the analyses of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. Through the review of the literature and of other resources, we have established the importance of an additional Olympic theme along with the main sport-related theme. The empirical research that is based on the discourse analyses shows that, despite its brevity, John Furlong’s speech stresses the theme and the values of the mega-event, and it is also highly communicative, incorporating the various significant semantics and pragmatics of a good speech: Brevity, simple words and sentences, colloquial language, relating to the audiences, employing stylistic and grammatical devices, appealing to the audience’s feelings and emotions, and the delivery with appropriate rhythm, emphasis, and pauses. When conducting the research, we were unable to identify any other studies that have undertaken a detailed analysis of this speech. There are numerous analyses of how the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games were prepared and also staged. We have also found some that focused on the theme of the event, but none focused on how the message of the event was delivered to the general public and the residents of host communities. This strengthens the originality and importance of our research.

Key words: Olympic Games; John Furlong; Speech analyses; Event management; Tourism

Address correspondence to Jasna Potočnik Topler, Faculty of Tourism, University of Maribor, Slomškova 11, 8250 Brežice, Slovenia. Tel: +386-51-384-340; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 109-121
1098-304X/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X14750895902756
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Impact of Tourism Advertising on Corporate Attitudes and Tourism Intentions: Country and Corporation Interactions in ihe Halo Effect and Public Diplomacy

Young Ju Jin,* Wonjung Min,† and Jae-Woong Yoo

*Entrepreneur Center, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea
†Department of History, Faculty of History, Geography and Political Science, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
‡Department of Public Relations and Design, Eulji University, Seongnam, South Korea

This study examines the halo effect of advertising a tourism destination overseas on attitudes toward its corporations and the public diplomacy efforts of the private sector on tourist intentions to visit. Three types of advertiser were identified (country, company, and mixed country/company). The respective dependent variables were corporate attitudes and tourism intentions. An international comparison was undertaken drawing upon university students from South Korea and Chile. Partial halo and public diplomacy effects were observed, with joint country/company advertisements proving to be more effective than advertising conducted by a single country or corporation. Theoretical and practical implications are suggested, along with potential limitations of the study.

Key words: Overseas advertising; Advertiser; Halo effect; Public diplomacy

Address correspondence to Jae Woong-Yoo, 553, Sanseong-daeroSujeong-guSeongnam-siGyeonggi-do, South Korea 461-713. Tel: +82 10 9392 7002; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 123-135
1098-304X/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X14750895902792
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How do Leisure Constraints Influence the Revisit Intentions of Music Festival Visitors?

Maikel Nuijten, Pieter De Rooij, and Laurent Snoeckx

NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands

Leisure constraints affecting participation can be divided into intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints. Only a few studies in the event industry have investigated the role of leisure constraints. These studies show different effects of leisure constraints on participation. The purpose of this article is to examine the influence of leisure constraints on revisit intention regarding music festivals. This study is of quantitative nature and utilizes survey research. A sample of 1,063 respondents was used within the analyses, measuring the influence of perceived constraints on revisit intention. The results show that intrapersonal constraints (a lack of importance and interest) and structural constraints (travel time, a lack of time, costs, and a lack of satisfaction with the festival area) significantly influence revisit intention. In line with results from other leisure industries, intrapersonal constraints show the strongest effects. Interpersonal constraints do not affect revisit intentions. Music festivals should ideally maintain a high level of engagement with the visitors throughout the year to ensure continuous involvement.

Key words: Leisure constraints; Revisit intention; Music; Events; Festivals

Address correspondence to Maikel Nuijten, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 137-145
1098-304X/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X14750895902837
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The use of Sina Weibo and Twitter by International Luxury Hotels

Wen Wu,* Melissa Clark,† Bomi Kang,† and Monica Fine†

*Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang, China
†Department of Marketing and Resort Tourism, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC, USA

Social media is a valuable marketing tool in the hospitality and tourism industry. Microblogging sites (social media sites comprised of concise, frequent posts) have allowed customers to discuss brands online with other customers across the globe. Focusing on the international luxury hotel segment, this article compares Twitter in the US and Sina Weibo in China. We collected data from both sites using content analysis and analyzed it using independent chi-square tests. The results suggest that luxury hotels communicated their messages and brand images differently through Twitter and Sina Weibo and provided additional promotion activities on Sina Weibo to attract customers in China.

Key words: Microblogs; Sina Weibo; Twitter; International luxury hotels; Marketing strategy

Address correspondence to Melissa Clark, Associate Professor of Marketing, Coastal Carolina University, P.O. Box 261954, Conway, SC 29528-6054, USA. Tel: (843) 349-2662; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 147-160
1098-304X/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X14750895902882
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Does Korean Drama Have a Real Influence? An Analysis of Malaysia Outbound Tourists to South Korea

Pek Yen Teh*† and Hong Ching Goh‡§

*Asia-Europe Institute, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
†Centre for Tourism, Hospitality, and Culinary Management, Sunway University Business School, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia
‡Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
§Spatial Environmental Governance for Sustainability Research (UMSERGE), University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Korea has recently emerged as one of the top tourism destinations in the world, and a catalyst of its rapidly developing tourism industry is Korean drama. Studies on Korean tourism, which focus on sociocultural and gender-related issues, as well as audience behaviors, have been conducted in the Asian region. However, these studies have been geographically limited to monoethnic countries only. As one of the countries contributing to Korea’s inbound tourism, Malaysia experienced a significant increase of tourists visiting Korea. Hence, this study aims to identify the motivation segmentation and overall satisfaction level among Malaysian tourists visiting Korea. Specifically, the study aims to identify the influence of Korean drama in their overall experience. A questionnaire-based survey of these tourists was conducted in Seoul City, and cluster analysis was applied to derive motivation segmentation from the collected data. Afterwards, a characteristic comparison was accomplished between drama- and non-drama-watching tourists. Finally, the overall satisfaction of tourists was determined. Results showed three types of motivation segmentation and revealed characteristic differences between the drama- and non-drama-watching tourists. Furthermore, these segmented motivations manifested significant differences in terms of overall satisfaction. In general, Malaysian tourists perceived Korea as a place for family and social bonding, as well as for relaxation and cultural exploration. Interestingly, Korean drama did not influence the overall tourist satisfaction, although it serves as a cultural platform through which tourists gained familiarity with the destination prior to the trip.

Key words: Korean drama; Tourist motivation; Drama pilgrimage; Film tourism; Malaysian tourists’ segmentation

Address correspondence to Hong Ching Goh, Ph.D., Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 16, pp. 161-168
1098-304X/16 $60.00 + .00
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/109830416X14750895902927
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2016 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Conceptualizing Spiritual Tourism: Cultural Considerations and a Comparison With Religious Tourism

Gregory Brian Willson

School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Perth, Western Australia

Scholarly and consumer interest in spiritual tourism has increased rapidly in recent years. However, confusion remains about the conceptual differences between spiritual and religious tourism and how the conceptualizations are impacted by cultural and personal factors. It may be argued that while some researchers provided some insights into the “spirituality puzzle,” most have failed to provide a holistic picture. By conducting a multidisciplinary literature review, this article explores the conceptual and cultural constructs of religion and spirituality to provide a platform for future scholars to explore the phenomena of religious and spiritual tourism.

Key words: Religion; Spiritual; Pilgrimage; Cross-cultural

Address correspondence to Gregory Brian Willson, School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, 6027, Perth, Western Australia. Tel: (618) 63042558; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it