Event Management 21(1) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 1-12
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599516X
14786350337262
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Innovations in Sport Management: The Role of Motivations and Value Cocreation at Public Viewing Events

Herbert Woratschek,* Christian Durchholz,† Christopher Maier,* and Tim Ströbel

*Department of Services Management, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany
†Research, bbg Betriebsberatungs GmbH, Germany
‡Institute of Sport Science, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

During mega-sport events, such as FIFA World Cup or Olympic Games, Fan Fests and other public viewing events have been developed as an innovative value proposition for watching sports. Those events attract millions of sport spectators worldwide. Event organizers have already realized the tremendous economic potential, yet sport management literature provides little empirical evidence on this innovation in sport management. Therefore, this study investigates motivational drivers for sport consumption of public viewing events and provides a better understanding of innovation-induced value cocreation at sport events. As public viewing represents an innovative mixture of stadium and television, we conduct a literature review of sport spectator motivations and study empirical findings in the stadium, television, and public viewing context. Based on this theoretical background we conduct a quantitative analysis. During the UEFA EURO 2008TM in Austria and Switzerland, 498 spectators were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire at official public viewing events. The findings of this analysis reveal two new motivational dimensions for passive sport consumption. Spectators of public viewing events enjoy the freedom to move around and the intercultural contact and therefore the chance to socialize with fan groups from different countries and cultures. Those new motivational dimensions represent key drivers of sport consumption behavior in the context of public viewing events. In addition to those empirical findings, we derive practical implications in order to understand how innovations in sport management such as public viewing events open new ways to create value at sport events.

Key words: Consumer behavior; Innovations; Motivations; Public viewing events; Value cocreation

Address correspondence to Dr. Christopher Maier, Research Assistant and Lecturer, Department of Services Management, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany. Tel: +49-921-555830; Fax: +49-921-553496; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 13-25
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14809630270998
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Fuzzy Numbers and Topsis for Analyzing Service Quality in the Mice Industry

Juan Carlos Martín,* Concepción Román,* and Clara Gonzaga†

*Institute of Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain
†Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, Loja, Ecuador

This article presents a fuzzy logic approach in order to solve a multidimensional problem that evaluates the service quality of conferences held at the Technical University of Loja (UTPL) in 2013. In this way, an overall service satisfaction index for each conference is calculated allowing for a final classification of the selected conferences. The theory of fuzzy sets is used by applying triangular fuzzy numbers (TFN) as a method to overcome some language problems (i.e., the ambiguity of the concepts that are associated with subjective judgments when measuring the service quality with linguistic terms). Based on the concept of the degree of optimality, via the TOPSIS method, an overall performance service satisfaction index for each conference is developed. A set of 32 different dimensions have been used to assess the degree of satisfaction experienced by the conference attendees, and the final classification shows that the performance of the conferences is not homogeneous as some of them perform better than others. This may be due to different factors, such as the central resources that the university provides for each conference, the quality of the articles included in the conference, the key conference speakers, the different market segments that attended the conference, and other external factors. Studies on service quality in the MICE sector are still scarce in the literature as the majority of the literature on service quality in tourism generally refers to hotels. As a result, our study aims to fill this gap. Our results allow the organizers and the central authorities of the university to identify the different dimensions needing improvement, which allows for a redirection and provision of general guidelines on how to effectively respond to the comments, suggestions, and complaints from delegates. Furthermore, the study examines not only the functional quality attributes in the university, but also the quality attributes of the destination, such as the image of the city, transport connections to the airport, hotels, restaurants, and the climate. Therefore, the city planners and administrators can also use the results to market Loja as an attractive destination in Ecuador for the MICE industry. 

Key words: Fuzzy logic; Triangular fuzzy numbers (TFN); TOPSIS; Segment MICE; Service quality

Address correspondence to Juan Carlos Martín, Institute of Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35.017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Tel: +34 928 45 8189; Fax: +34 928 45 8183; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 27-45
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14809630271032
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Reimagining the Races: The Case of Emerging Adults and Their Composite Perspective

Michael Anthony Lee

Department of Management & Marketing, College of Arts, Social Sciences & Commerce, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia

Each year, the New Zealand thoroughbred horseracing industry must balance the negotiation of its image as an entertainment venue with seasonal racegoers. During the spring and summer high seasons, tens of thousands of emerging adults (age 18–30) visit metropolitan thoroughbred horse racetracks because they offer favorable hospitality packages. Such activities are designed to reflect the entertainment values of the New Zealand thoroughbred industry during the 1960s, which flourished under such principles. Today, however, that image is beginning to create an unsustainable future for New Zealand thoroughbred horseracing. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image of an old-fashioned industry as an effective attraction technique for events. Emphasis was placed upon the industry’s image among emerging adults during the winter low season. A mixed-method approach evaluated how emerging adults perceive alternative images of a phenomenon. Although most respondents visited primarily to gamble, equally, they were not influenced by existing advertising or imagery. A closed-response survey (
N = 90) was conducted at six popular thoroughbred horse racetrack locations in New Zealand. This identified the way some emerging adults are making use of leisure time.

Key words: Image; Emerging; Adult; Racegoer; Behavior; Motivation

Address correspondence to Michael Anthony Lee, Department of Management & Marketing, College of Arts, Social Sciences & Commerce, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia 3086. Tel: (+011) 61 04 479 46514; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 47-60
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14809630271078
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Conceptualizing the Impact of Festival and Event Attendance Upon Family Quality of Life (QOL)

Allan Jepson and Raphaela Stadler

Tourism, Hospitality, and Event Management Group, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire, UK

Quality of life (QOL) research has been well explored in medicine, psychology, and the social sciences, although it has received very little attention within festival and event studies. This proposition article is both conceptual and exploratory and will seek to establish the foundations of a framework to investigate the impact(s) festivals and events may have upon individual and family QOL and to set an agenda for research into QOL in the field of festival and event studies. The article begins with a review of literature, which sets the conceptual nature of the article in the area of festival studies and in doing so investigates interconnected themes such as: political, social, cultural, and personal impact discourses. Following this our article provides a review of literature introducing key QOL theories, concepts, and research undertaken in previous studies. The article then progresses naturally into a discussion of the key differences and relationships between individual and family QOL, and provides an overview of previous research in festivals and events to allow the study to develop research questions in order to situate this article and our future research agenda. Following the literature review we present a discussion of key methodological considerations in order to determine the most appropriate and practical framework for collecting and analyzing primary data to better understand the potential impacts of festivals and events on families’ QOL. The final section of the article concludes and reflects upon our review of literature and research questions, which we hope will set an agenda for future research in this area and on the development of a framework to test QOL within events.

Key words: Community festivals/events; Individual & family quality of life (QOL); Qualitative inquiry approach; Festival & event studies

Address correspondence to Allan Jepson, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Event Management, Researcher in Event Studies, Room M210, University of Hertfordshire Business School, Tourism, Hospitality & Event Management Group, de Havilland Campus, AL10 9EU, Hertfordshire, UK. Tel: 01707 285548; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 61-70
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14809630271113
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Assessing Economic Impact as a Means for Event Efficacy: A Proposed Model and Case Study

Mark R. Testa* and Michelle Metter†

*L. Robert Payne School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, College of Professional Studies & Fine Arts, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA
†Fast Forward Event Productions, El Cajon, CA, USA

Revenue generation for event planners traditionally comes from sponsorships, ticket and registration sales, merchandising, and additional income streams; however, these sources can at times be limited due to a lack of data and ability to substantiate an event’s positioning within an industry or marketplace. A variety of new methodologies exist for such agencies to generate funding, particularly through demonstration of economic impact. To date, many event planning organizations are not familiar with this process or the use of such data. The following provides a conceptual model for understanding and engaging in economic impact analysis to secure traditional and new sources of funding. An overview of Tourism Improvement Districts (TID) is provided and a step-by-step process for utilizing the data is proposed. Finally, the San Diego Bay Wine & Food Festival (SDBWFF) is used as a case study demonstrating the process.

Key words: Economic impact; Event planning; Wine festival; Event funding

Address correspondence to Mark R. Testa, Ph.D., Professor of Management, L. Robert Payne School of Hospitality & Tourism Management, College of Professional Studies & Fine Arts, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 71-82
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14809630271159
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Cultural Capital and Expenditures of Classical Music Festival Visitors

Kyoung-Joo Lee

Department of Tourism Management, Kyungwon Campus, Gachon University, Sujeong-guSeongnam-City, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea

A better understanding of predictors of festival expenditures is critical for festival organizers to be able to conduct marketing promotion effectively, organize attractive programs, and accurately estimate economic impact. In an attempt to identify predictors of festival consumption, this study focuses on the influence of the cultural capital of music festival visitors. Based on a survey of visitors to a classic music festival in Korea, this article analyzes the divergent effects on festival expenditures of four different forms of cultural capital: embodied, objectified, institutionalized, and familial capital. The empirical research shows that institutionalized and familial cultural capital have a positive and significant effect on the expenditures of festival visitors while embodied and objectified capital do not. The research findings suggest that
cultural taste aspect of cultural capital may explain festival participation but economic resource aspect of capital is more deeply related to the amount of consumption at festivals.

Key words: Cultural capital; Tourism expenditure; Classical music; Festival

Address correspondence to Kyoung-Joo Lee, Associate Professor, Department of Tourism Management, Kyungwon Campus, Gachon University, 1342 SeongnamdaeroSujeong-guSeongnam-City, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Tel: 82-10-7788-2067; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it  or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 83-100
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14809630271195
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Systematic Quantitative Review of Volunteer Management in Events

Eunjung Kim and Graham Cuskelly

Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport, Queensland, Australia

Most event organizations rely on the commitment of volunteers to prepare for and stage events. An attempt to understand factors that affect volunteers’ engagement and retention has received much attention from a substantial number of published studies. This article provides a systematic quantitative review of 71 original, peer-reviewed research articles published in English language academic journals on volunteer management in events. The review examines the nature of the research, methods, key concepts and theories, and types of research questions posed in studies associated with volunteer management in events. Published studies on event volunteer management are geographically concentrated in several countries but published in 35 different journals across a range of fields. Volunteer management in events has been the focus of rapidly increasing research attention in recent years with almost two thirds of the articles included in the review published in the 6 years leading to 2014. The majority of published research has not clearly articulated a theoretical framework and most studies have used survey methods to collect data from volunteers at mega-sport events. It was concluded that to advance knowledge of event volunteer management there is a need for increased collaboration internationally between researchers. Moreover, it is essential to engage with relevant theory in order to better understand and predict the effectiveness of volunteer management strategies in recruiting, retaining, and building a sense of community among volunteers in events.

Key words: Volunteer management; Human resource management (HRM); Volunteers; Events; Review

Address correspondence to Eunjung Kim, Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Business G 27_Room 2.08, Parklands Drive, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport, Queensland 4222, Australia. Tel: +61 7 5552 7671; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 101-108
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14809630271230
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Intent Scales in Economic Impact Studies: A Case Study

Donna M. Anderson

University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, USA

The portion of the economic impact of an event attributable to nonlocal visitor spending typically involves surveying visitors on the amount of money they spent or planned on spending at local businesses. However, this self-reported information can overstate the direct effect portion of an economic impact if the planned spending does not occur. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of intent scale translations that convert a respondent’s stated purchase intentions into actual purchase probabilities. Using in-person surveys of a sample of visitors to a Midwestern US wildlife festival, results show a significant difference exists between total reported spending and spending when intent scales are considered. Thus, the use of intent scales has the potential of providing a more accurate estimate of planned visitor spending.

Key words: Economic impact; Survey methods; Intent scales

Address correspondence to Donna M. Anderson, Ph.D., Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, 1725 State Street La Crosse, WI 54650 USA. Tel: 608-785-6864; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 109-118
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14809630271276
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Might Chinese Medium Sized Cities Improve Competitive Advantage in the Event Tourism Market?

Chao (Nicole) Zhou*, Guiqiang Qiao,* and Chris Ryan†

*Zhejiang International Studies University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, P.R. China
†China-New Zealand Tourism Research Unit, The University of Waikato Management School, Hamilton, New Zealand

Due to a limited brand presence and other issues, many Chinese second and third tier cities find it hard to compete with larger cities to attract, host, and promote mega-events. The purpose of this study is to understand the gap between the large and medium-sized cities and find how the smaller cities may develop their own product potential in the MICE market. The article reports results from a qualitative research study based on interviews with 40 business attendees from three medium-sized cities of Zhejiang Province, China. The results indicated a series of related dimensions, but a new pattern of “hosting capability” can be discerned whereby business attendees are aware of the product offered by the smaller-sized cities but perceive that their competitive advantage is weak, primarily due to a poor brand presence.

Key words: Chinese cities; MICE; Perceptions

Address correspondence to Chris Ryan, China-New Zealand Tourism Research Unit, The University of Waikato Management School, Hillcrest Road, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 119-129
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14809630271311
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Strategic Planning for Tourism Development With a Focus on Muharram Ceremony Using Soar Framework: A Case Study of Yazd Province in Iran

Amir Reza Khavarian-Garmsir,* Jacqueline M. Stavros,† and Mohammad Hossain Saraei

*Department of Human Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
†College of Management, Lawrence Technological University, Southfield, MI, USA
‡Department of Geography, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

The purpose of this study is to provide a new strategic plan for tourism development using the SOAR framework with a focus on the religious event of Muharram in the province of Yazd, Iran. Muharram ceremony is a religious event based on the culture and religion of Shia Muslims, which could introduce a tourist attraction in the form of an event to other countries. The SOAR framework is a strengths-based strategic planning matrix that focuses on strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR). This framework is an alternative for SWOT analysis. Participants are asked to identify the most important strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results after interviews, because SOAR uses a participatory approach to strategic planning. Finally, the measurable results of this research are to provide tourism with a comprehensive way of planning this ceremony, to improve facilities in and near tourist attractions, to attract public investment for the reconstruction of mosques and religious sites, and to hold exhibitions with a focus on Yazd tourism potentials like handicrafts, customs, and traditions.

Key words: Strategic planning; Tourism development; Strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR); Religious events; Muharram ceremony; Yazd province

Address correspondence to Amir Reza Khavarian-Garmsir, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Human Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, Vesal Shirazi St; pp: 1417853933. Tel: +989138566456; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it