Tourism Culture & Communication 17(1) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 7-17
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
14837314056771
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Rise and Fall of Orientalism in Travel, Tourism, and Pilgrimage: Report From Palestine/Israel

Tom Selwyn

School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, London, UK

Inspired by Edward Said’s
Orientalism, this article recollects and reflects on various aspects of both historic and contemporary Orientalist thinking in general and in the context of the Israeli occupation of Palestine in particular. Following Said himself, Derek Gregory Rana Kabbani, and others, the early parts of the article prefigure the place of travel, tourism, and pilgrimage (TTP) in both the construction of Orientalism and resistance to it. Looking through the lens of TTP as part of a broad field including art and cultural production, the latter part of the article identifies movements and initiatives in this field—across the region and beyond—that seek to resist and ultimately undo Orientalist thinking there.

Key words: Orientalism; Travel and tourism; Pilgrimage; Palestine; Israel

Address correspondence to Tom Selwyn, Professorial Research Associate, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Thornhaugh Street, Russell Square, London WC1H 0XG, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 19-30
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
14837314056816
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Irreducible Ethics in Reflexivity: Rethinking Reflexivity in Conducting Ethnography in Shangri-La, Southwest China

Jundan Zhang

Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Because this research started in Shangri-La County in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Southwest China, I have had different people in different occasions ask me similar questions: Are you a Han or a Tibetan? Why do you want to do research in Shangri-La? These are indeed common questions to start with if one is studying a place and people that are different from one’s own “origins.” However, if we take such questions seriously and look deeper, we can see that they are not only posed on the condition of knowledge or assumptions, but also posed as a concern and sometimes curiosity on how the researcher may reflect upon her research as a political action and deal with relations with other people, especially in a situation that research seems to be institutionalized and the researcher appears to have more influence and power. In this article, I attempt to look into the contents and contexts of the recent “reflexive calls” in tourism studies and social research in general. Through critically questioning what “reflexivity” is and what context it has been applied, I argue that both the researcher and the researched subjects are a mixture of “selves,” and they both go through the process of interpreting information and thus always attempt to negotiate with their surroundings. Therefore, I argue that we must rethink the current normalized ideas of “reflexivity” in social research, to examine/self-examine the researcher’s intention or actual capacity to practice “reflexivity.” Hence, the ethical way for me to follow in this research is to not claim myself being “reflexive,” rather to act on it.

Key words: Self-reflexivity; Ethical practice; Ethnography; Indigenous community; Shangri-La; Critical tourism studies

Address correspondence to Jundan Zhang, Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 31-46
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
14837314056852
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Inclusion of the Communist/Socialist Heritage in the Emerging Representations of Eastern Europe: The Case of Bulgaria

Milka Ivanova

Events, Tourism and Hospitality School, Carnegie Faculty, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK

After the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of the communist/socialist regimes many Eastern European countries sought to establish new separate, unique identities as part of the Western World and the European political and economic organizations. The old totalitarian identities, histories, and heritages have mostly been excluded from the desired and preferred representations about and of these countries and in many instances even silenced and suppressed. Tourism as major creator and mediator of knowledges and images about places, peoples, and pasts is an important factor in these processes of identity making, inclusion, and exclusion. In the case of Bulgaria, the communist/socialist heritage has been marginalized and silenced in the past 20 years as the country’s new European identity has been made, established, mediated, and announced. However, in the past 5 or so years with the hardships of the transitional period still continuing and with an emerging sense of nostalgia towards the socialist/communist period, the totalitarian heritage has slowly started to become visible in the public discourse. Moreover, there has been registered desire by authoritative agents in the country to revisit that part of the Bulgarian history and include it through heritage sites in the exhibited and represented images of Bulgaria including through/in tourism. The proposed article offers an examination of these slow and contested processes of inclusion of the communist/socialist heritage and how this inclusion (or continued exclusion) is the interplay of power, identity, and tourism. These issues are examined within the context of a qualitative critical interpretive study of Bulgaria.

Key words: Totalitarian; Communist; Heritage; Identity; Representation; Silences; Power

Address correspondence to Milka Ivanova, Senior Lecturer in International Tourism Management, Leeds Beckett University, Carnegie Faculty, Events, Tourism and Hospitality School, Leeds Beckett University City Campus, Leeds LS1 3HE, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 47-59
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
14837314056898
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Power Struggles Within and Between Organizations in Tourism Business: A Bourdieusean Approach to Organizational Analysis

Rafiq Ahmad

Culture and Tourism Studies, Sopore College, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India

Organizational analysis in the tourism industry within a broader sociological framework has largely received scant scholarly attention. This article is an effort to elicit new insights that Bourdieu’s sociological paradigm may bring to organizational analysis in tourism. This article seeks to examine and explain contestations for domination within and between travel agencies within the framework of Bourdieu’s relational analysis, using his theoretical triad—capital, habitus, and field. Examining contestations at the individual level (capital and dispositions), the mesolevel (habitus), and at the macrolevel (field) within and between travel companies, the article proposes to investigate organizational practices and strategies within and between travel companies. The article argues that organizational practices such as those of maximizing the distinction between tourist and traveler, and overwhelming promotion of ecotourism and “authenticity,” and emergence of boutique travel agencies and hotels can practically be explained within the contours of Bourdieu’s relational analysis. Drawing empirical evidence from travel companies, this article, through archival research and analogical theorizing, also proposes that organizational members import capital and habitus from their previous fields of struggle, from the social and professional arenas of their past, to organizational fields to form and shape organizational habitus.

Key words: Bourdieu; Power struggles; Tourism; Travel agencies; Habitus; Domination

Address correspondence to Rafiq Ahmad, Culture and Tourism Studies, Sopore College, Tourism Studies Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 61-73
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
14837314056933
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Time for Fluid Acumen: A Call for Improved Tourism Studies Dialogue With the Decolonizing World

Keith Hollinshead and Rukeya Suleman

Department of Business Systems and Operations, The Business School, The University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK

This article draws from the work of recent commentators in Tourism Studies like Coles, Hall, and Duval (calling for much more prevalent
adisciplinary/extradisciplinary cognition in Tourism Studies), like Franklin (demanding much more commonplace critique of the ways in which different societies are ordered), and like Hollinshead (bemoaning the general absence of open-to-the-future research agendas in and across the field). The article aims to consolidate the advances signposted by such new wave/new sense social theorists by drawing up a substantial conceptual glossary to help Tourism Studies researchers (and investigators in related fields) towards improved identification about the cosmologies of “other,” “distant,” or “underrecognized” populations, and towards more pertinent research agendas into the strategies of power that represent the cultural warrants and the aspirations of “different” peoples. In seeking in particular to develop an informed and contextualized lexicon on matters of decolonization vis-a-vis the political and communicative reach of tourism, the glossary focuses upon terms and concepts that pertain to the fantasmatics of populations (i.e., to the cherished emic aspirations of being and becoming that propel particular “distant”/“marginalized”/“postcolonial” societies). Hopefully, the provision of the glossary shown here can help improve the conceptual manner by which the consequential power/agency of tourism is understood today in terms of its authority to inscribe and project decolonizing societies and so-called postcolonial scenarios. The glossary being introduced within the article is itself drawn from a larger work in progress lexicon consisting of some 500 words (plus), which the authors are defining in long-haul fashion to variously describe the old sense/the wrong sense/the new sense/the open sense fantasmatics of populations. The overall more substantial glossary includes terms and concepts: on cosmology (deep listening, the indigenous renaissance, new nativism, quilted discourse, spiral discourse); on being and belonging (borderland pedagogy, conscientization, healing, fluid lives, complex personhood); on othering and otherness (governable bodies, hierarchies of knowledge, epistemic closure, linguicide, psychic violence); on imperialist/colonialist/neocolonialist understanding (rhetorical imperialism, master narratives, canonicity, cognitive imperialism, ascriptiveidentities); on fantasmatics [restorative processes, survivancy, the possibility of (XYZ), capacity, transgressive validities]; on new sense understandings (the dialectics of negotiation, the denaturalization of truth, interculturality, dethinking, the power of possibility).

Key words: Cosmology; Othering; Neocolonialism; Fantasmatics; New sense

Address correspondence to Keith Hollinshead, Professor of Public Culture, Department of Business Systems and Operations, University of Bedfordshire Business School, Vicarage Street, Luton, Bedfordshire, LU1 3JU UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it