Tourism Analysis 22(2) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 125-137
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562168
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
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Communication Is Key: The Interaction of Emotional Labor Strategies on Hotel Supervisors’ Turnover Intentions in China

Shi Xu,* Larry R. Martinez,* and Qin Lv

*School of Hospitality Management, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
†School of Hospitality Management, Beijing International Studies University, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China

Although past research has examined the link between emotional labor and turnover in organizational contexts, relatively little research has focused specifically on supervisors’ experiences of emotional labor and turnover. In the present study, supervisors’ levels of communication are posited to affect the interactive relation between expressing genuine emotions and engaging in surface acting because the interactive relation is expected to be more pronounced for supervisors who communicate less. This study was administered to 144 supervisors in four Chinese hotel companies. The results showed that the interactive effects of genuine emotions and surface acting on turnover intentions were strengthened when supervisors communicated with other colleagues less intimately but that there was not an effect related to the extent to which they communicated with many colleagues. The findings extend previous literature by demonstrating that a lack of intimate communication will increase intentions to leave among supervisors who express less genuine emotions and who engage in more surface acting.

Key words: Emotional labor; Genuine emotions; Surface acting; Communication; Turnover intentions; Chinese hotel

Address correspondence to Shi Xu, School of Hospitality Management, Pennsylvania State University, 201 Mateer Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 139-148
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562203
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
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The European Tourism Industry in Crisis: A Stock Market Perspective

Daniele Grechi,* Paola Ossola,† and Alessandra Tanda

*Department of Economics, Universita degli Studi dell’Insubria, Varese, Italy
†Department of Hospitality Management, Cesar Ritz Colleges Switzerland, Brig, Switzerland
‡Department of Economics, Management, and Quantitative Methods, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy

This article aims to evaluate the market performance of the European tourism industry from 2004 to 2014, a period that includes the financial and economic crises, to highlight which macroeconomic factors influenced the industry stock returns. The Stoxx Europe 600 Travel & Leisure price index is used to proxy the industry stock performance, and a multifactor market model is employed to individuate which macroeconomic variables are able to drive tourism stock performance. Results highlight that tourism stock performance is influenced by market conditions and by uncertainty, measured through the Chicago Board Options Exchange Volatility index (VIX). Despite the importance of tourism in Europe and its contribution to the economic growth, there is scant evidence on the performance of this industry in this area and on its relationship with economic conditions. The article, to the best of knowledge, represents the first contribution on the performance of European tourism industry in crisis years with a macroeconomic perspective.

Key words: Stock performance; Tourism industry; Crisis; Europe

Address correspondence to Alessandra Tanda, Department of Economics, Management, and Quantitative Methods, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Conservatorio 7, 20122 Milan, Italy. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it



Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 149-165
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562249
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Tourism Development and Economic Growth in Korea: Causal Relationship in Tails

Sung Y. Park* and Sang Hyuck Kim†

*School of Economics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
†Department of Tourism Management, Gachon University, Seongnam, Republic of Korea

Many empirical studies have investigated the existence of a causal relationship between a country’s tourism growth and economic growth. However, the findings from these studies have been inconclusive. Some studies have found evidence of a unidirectional causal relationship, whereas others have found a bidirectional causal relationship. This inconsistency may be due to the usage of different frequencies of data or an incomplete description of the causal relationship. This study examines the causal relationship between economic growth and tourism growth in Korea using three types of Granger noncausality tests: the classical Granger noncausality test, a robust Granger noncausality test, and a Granger noncausality test in quantiles. Our empirical results provide evidence of what appears to be a bidirectional causal relationship between tourism growth and economic growth in overall quantile intervals. There is strong support that tourism growth leads to overall economic growth in Korea. However, in the reverse relationship, economic growth only has a significant effect on tourism at low quantile levels of tourism growth. These findings suggest that the causal relationship is heterogeneous and depends on different levels of tourism growth and economic growth.

Key words: Tourism growth; Causality; Robust causality; Quantile regression; Economic growth

Address correspondence to Sang Hyuck Kim, Department of Tourism Management, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnam-DaeroSujeong-guSeongnam-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 167-183
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562285
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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Environmental Impacts of Mass Religious Tourism: From Residents’ Perspectives

Habib Alipour,* Hossein G. T. Olya,† and Iman Forouzan

*Faculty of Tourism, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimağusa, Turkey
†College of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Pishgaman Siahat Toos Hotel Training Institute, Mashhad, Iran

This study aims to examine residents’ perceptions of the environmental impact of mass religious tourism in Mashhad, Iran. Although numerous studies have examined residents’ perceptions regarding the impact of mass religious tourism, there is a paucity of research specifically assessing the spatial pattern of the environmental impact of religious tourism with a focus on areas surrounding the shrine. The city of Mashhad is one of the most highly revered religious sites for the Shiite sect of Islam. Three hundred questionnaires were distributed to those living around the holy shrine, and an analysis of variance was performed to compare the mean scores of the environmental dimensions against educational level, income level, and residency length. A geostatistical technique using geographic information system software was applied to map spatial variations in environmental impact, indicating that although religious tourism has resulted in environmental improvement, it is limited to those areas immediately surrounding the shrine, and this improvement does not extend to the whole city. Based on statistical results, residents’ perceptions generally were negative in terms of the environmental impact of religious tourism. Moreover, respondents’ perceptions appeared to be colored by their income and the length of their residency.

Key words: Residents’ perceptions; Religious site; Geographic information system (GIS); Environmental impact; Mashhad

Address correspondence to Habib Alipour, Faculty of Tourism, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimağusa/KKTC, Via Mersin 10, Turkey, 99450. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 185-200
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562320
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
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Exploring the Dynamic Effects of Urbanization and Real Effective Exchange Rate on Tourism Output of Singapore

Suwastika Naidu

School of Management and Public Administration, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji Islands

The main aim of this article is to examine the short-run and long-run impacts of urbanization and real effective exchange rate on the tourism output of Singapore. This article uses the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds test to examine the relationship between urbanization, inflation, and tourism output by using the time series data for 30 years (1985–2015). The findings of this article confirm that a 1% increase in urbanization will increase tourism output by 132.87% in the long-run. A 1% positive change in urbanization will decrease tourism output by 68.83% in the short-run. The findings of this article also confirm that a 1% increase in the real effective exchange rate will decrease the tourism output of Singapore by 6.25% in the long-run. A 1% positive change in real effective exchange rate will increase tourism output by 2.23% in the short-run. This study has implications for policy makers and academics.

Key words: Urbanization; Real effective exchange rate; Tourism output; Singapore; ARDL bounds test; Long-run cointegration; Short-run causality; Long-run causality

Address correspondence to Suwastika Naidu, School of Management and Public Administration, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of the South Pacific, Private Mail Bag, Suva, Fiji Islands. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 201-217
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562366
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
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A Model of Memorable Tourism Experience: The Effects on Satisfaction, Affective Commitment, and Storytelling

Yun Ying (Susan) Zhong,* James Busser,† and Seyhmus Baloglu

*Hospitality Management, College of Health and Human Services, California State University, Long Beach, CA, USA
†William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV, USA

In the past decade, the positive and memorable tourism experience (MTE) has merged as a critical concept in the hospitality and tourism field. Previous quantitative studies on MTE mainly focus on measurement development and the relationship between MTE and behavioral intention, and they lack the integration of MTE with other core marketing constructs such as satisfaction and affective commitment. Furthermore, storytelling is conceived as central to the tourist experience, but its relationship with MTE has not been empirically investigated. Within such a context, in this study we surveyed 400 tourists who recalled their most recent leisure travel, and empirically investigated the relationships among MTE, satisfaction, affective commitment, and storytelling behavior. The results show that MTE, compared to satisfaction, is a stronger predictor of affective commitment. Moreover, MTE is a more powerful antecedent of tourists’ storytelling behavior than affective commitment. The study expanded the overall nomological network related to MTE, which is critical to advancing the experiential view of tourists’ experience. It also generated insights for destination branding and marketing.

Key words: Memorable tourism experience (MTE); Satisfaction; Affective commitment; Storytelling behavior

Address correspondence to Yun Ying (Susan) Zhong, Hospitality Management, College of Health and Human Services, California State University, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 219-236
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562401
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Perceptions of Challenges Facing Rural Communities: An Importance–Performance Analysis

Jinyang Deng,* David McGill,* and Douglas Arbogast

*Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Design, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
†Community, Economic, and Workforce Development Unit, West Virginia University Extension Service, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA

Although several studies have focused on understanding attitudes held by local residents and/or other stakeholders toward the economic, environmental, and social/cultural impacts of tourism, very little research has examined the challenges and opportunities facing rural communities from the perspectives of multistakeholders. To fill this research void, this study uses the stakeholder theory as its foundation to examine challenges and opportunities facing the Appalachian Forest Heritage Area (AFHA) from the perspectives of both community leaders and residents using a modified, mean-centered importance–performance analysis (IPA). Results indicate that community leaders and residents are highly consistent in their perceived challenges facing the AFHA, with marketing, community leadership, and financial investment being identified by both groups as the most salient challenges that the AFHA needs to concentrate efforts on. Secondary priority identified by both groups relates to collaboration and partnership with tourism industry, the AFHA, and surrounding communities. The study also shows that the modified, mean-centered IPA is more effective, if judged by the iso-rating line, than either the data-centered approach or the scale-centered approach to identify priorities for improvement. Research implications and future research needs are also discussed.

Key words: Rural tourism; Challenges; Stakeholder theory; Importance–performance analysis (IPA)

Address correspondence to Jinyang Deng, Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program, Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Design, West Virginia University, 4100 Agricultural Sciences Building, P.O. Box 6108, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 237-245
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562447
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Research Note

Tourism Small and Medium Enterprise Management Practices and Firm Performance

Kalsitinoor Set,* Frank W. Agbola,† and Amir Mahmood‡

*Bachelor of Management (Tourism) Program, School of Maritime Business and Management, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
†Economics Discipline, Newcastle Business School, Faculty of Business and Law, The University of Newcastle, Australia, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
‡The University of Newcastle, Singapore

A better understanding of tourism small and medium enterprise (TSME) management practices could improve firm performance. Extending the resource-based view theory, this study empirically investigated the causal relationships between management practices and TSME firm performance using a structural equation model and survey data of 346 tourism entrepreneurs. Six of the nine hypotheses were confirmed. It was found that business planning, entrepreneurial motivation, and government assistance do have a direct and positive effect on TSME firm performance. Additionally, entrepreneurial motivation was positively associated with business planning, business alliance, and firm performance; however, business alliance and Internet adoption did not affect firm performance. The findings highlight the importance of management practices that have previously been overlooked in policy decision making within the tourism industry.

Key words: Tourism small and medium enterprises (TSMEs); Management practices; Firm performance; Malaysia

Address correspondence to Frank W. Agbola, Economics Discipline, Newcastle Business School, Faculty of Business and Law, The University of Newcastle, Australia, University Drive, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 247-254
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562483
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Research Note

A Review of Crouch and Ritchie’s, Heath’s, and Dwyer and Kim’s Models of Tourism Competitiveness

Ernest Azzopardi* and Robert Nash†

*Junior College Department of Economics, University of Malta, Tal-QroqqMsida, Malta
†Bond Business School, Bond University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

Tourism literature includes several studies that either elaborate single variable models or present limited frameworks to explain tourism competitiveness, with a few exceptions focusing on developing a comprehensive tourism destination competitiveness model that incorporates numerous elements. In this article, the models of Crouch and Ritchie, Dwyer and Kim, and Heath are described in detail and are contrasted for their comprehensiveness as well as for their validity and applicability to specific destinations.

Key words: Destination; Competitiveness; Models; Evaluation; Contribution

Address correspondence to Robert Nash, Bond Business School, Bond University, 14 University Drive, Gold Coast, Queensland 4229, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 255-260
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562528
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Research Note

Management, Altruism, and Customer Focus as Drivers of Corporate Social Responsibility in Tourism Intermediation

Lluís Garay, Joan Miquel Gomis, and Francesc González

Economics and Business Department, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

Through a sample of 119 travel agencies located in Catalonia (Spain), this study establishes the existence of three different profiles of agencies defined by their managers’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) motivations (Management, Altruism, and Customers factors). These profiles present diverse business characteristics and different CSR behavior. In this regard, belonging to the Altruism factor is correlated with the implementation of three types of CSR measures (environmental, social, and economic).

Key words: Corporate social responsibility (CSR); Intermediation; Small and medium enterprises; Altruism

Address correspondence to Lluís Garay, Economics and Business Department, Universitat Oberta de CatalunyaAvinguda Tibidabo, 08035, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 261-266
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562564
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Research Note

Tourism Demand Modeling and Forecasting for El Salvador

Sofia T. Melendez and Brijesh Thapa

Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Tourism has emerged as a major economic growth sector that has experienced an increase in tourist arrivals and associated economic impacts in El Salvador. The objective of this exploratory research was to model and forecast tourism demand based on time series, using data on more than four decades of tourist arrivals to El Salvador. Eleven different time series models were used to estimate tourist arrivals to allow comparison of forecasting accuracy. Of those, three models were identified as the best predictors of future values for this particular time series data: Holt–Winters, Naive 1, and single exponential smoothing. The estimation of the time series models and the forecasted arrivals until 2025 provides useful information for decision makers and contributes to the literature.

Key words: Tourism demand; Forecasting; Time series; El Salvador

Address correspondence to Brijesh Thapa, Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management, University of Florida, 325 FLG, P.O. Box 118208, Gainesville, FL 32611-8209, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 266-272
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14888192562609
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Research Note

Attitudes Toward the Legalization of Marijuana on Colorado Tourism

Diane B. Gaede* and Jerry J. Vaske

*Department of Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, USA
†Department of Human Dimensions of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA

Recreational use of marijuana was legalized in Colorado in January 2014. This article compared marijuana consumers’ and nonconsumers’ attitudes about the impact of legalization on tourism. We hypothesized that (a) consumers would evaluate the impacts more positively than nonconsumers and (b) there would be more consensus in these attitudes among consumers compared to nonconsumers. Data were obtained from a survey of undergraduate students (n = 1,760; response rate = 88%) at a university in northern Colorado in 2014. The independent variable was the students’ self-reported consumption of marijuana [i.e., no (n = 1,127) or yes (n = 634)]. The dependent variables were attitudes (i.e., positive, neutral, negative) toward legalization on seven types of tourism (i.e., summer, winter, skiing, romantic, family, Denver, overall). Results support both hypotheses. Consumers were statistically more positive about legalization of marijuana than nonconsumers, and there was more consensus about legalization among marijuana consumers compared to nonconsumers.

Key words: Tourism types; Marijuana legalization; PCI2 consensus; Impacts; Attitudes

Address correspondence to Diane B. Gaede, Department of Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality, University of Northern Colorado, Gunter Hall 1250, Campus Box 132, Greeley, CO 80639, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it