Event Management 21(3) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 233–250
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14942648527473
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Enabling Event Volunteer Legacies: A Knowledge Management Perspective

Deborah Blackman,* Angela M. Benson,† and Tracey J. Dickson‡

*School of Business, UNSW, Canberra, Australia
†School of Sport and Service Management, University of Brighton, Eastbourne, UK
‡Faculty of Business, Government and Law, University of Canberra, Bruce, Australia

Human capital development delivered through the volunteers is espoused as one legacy outcome of hosting mega-sporting events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games. However, to date the reality of such a legacy remains largely undemonstrated. In this article, Nonaka and Tacheuchi’s SECI model and Lee and Yang’s knowledge value chain (KVC) are integrated to identify insights to support the development of a potential human capital legacy from volunteers in future mega-sport events through focusing on knowledge management. A case study of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games demonstrates gaps in the knowledge management systems in place, both in terms of the identification of knowledge and the processes for capture and reuse. It is argued that, unless those involved in hosting the events reconsider their approach to human capital legacy development, using the creation and management of knowledge as a core element, it is unlikely that long-term human capital legacy outcomes will be achieved for host communities.

Key words: Knowledge legacy; Human capital; Strategic knowledge management; Knowledge value chain (KVC); Volunteers

Address correspondence to Deborah Blackman, School of Business, UNSW Canberra, PO Box 7916, Canberra BC 2610, Australia. Tel: +61(0) 26268 8831; Fax: +61(0) 26268 8450; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 251–268
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
4942648527491
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Support of Local Residents for the 2016 Olympic Games

Claudio M. Rocha,* Valdir J. Barbanti,† and Packianathan Chelladurai

*School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
†School of Physical Education and Sport, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
‡School of Hospitality, Sport, and Tourism Management, Troy University, Troy, AL, USA

Drawing on social exchange theory, this research explores and describes the structural relationships among (a) expectations of multidimensional positive legacy, (b) evaluations of the government work in preparation for staging, and (c) support of local residents for the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. We proposed and tested a direct-effects model against an alternative partially mediated model, based on the data provided by a multistage (neighborhoods, residences, residents) stratified random sample of Rio de Janeiro’s residents (n = 900). Results showed that the expectations of positive legacies can work either as a mediator between evaluations of government work and residents’ support or as a factor that directly affects intentions to support, with no antecedents being necessary. At the moment of the research, Rio residents seemed a little skeptical of the government work and positive legacies for the country and, consequently, only moderately support the 2016 Olympic Games in the city. Lower income residents offer less support than higher income ones. Higher expectations are placed on tourism legacy, while lower expectations are on environmental legacy.

Key words: Legacy; Olympic Games; Support; Sport event

Address correspondence to Claudio M. Rocha, School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ave Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirao Preto-SP, Brazil, 14040-907. Tel: +55 16 3315-0348; Fax: +55 16 3315-0551; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 269–280
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14942648527509
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Primary Economic Impact of Small-Scale Sports Events

Grzegorz Kwiatkowski* and Ove Oklevik

*Department of Tourism and Marketing, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland
†Western Norway University of Applied Science, Sogndal, Norway

The assumption that events can have positive economic impacts has increased interest in their hosting by many destinations worldwide. Although attendees are a constitutive part of events, scarce research has empirically analyzed their behavior from an economic standpoint. In particular, further exploratory research is required on (1) how much money event attendees spend at events, and (2) the extent to which event attendee expenditures positively affect the host region. A better understanding of these two aspects is crucial for any kind of economic impact assessment. This study examines three World Cup ski-jumping events in Norway during the winter of 2012–2013. Altogether, 870 spectators were interviewed at the venues in Vikersund, Trondheim, and Oslo. Prior research has estimated that the proportion of spectators contributing to a positive economic impact is between 10% and 60%. The current study shows that the share of this spectator group at the World Cup ski-jumping events in Norway lies in the lower part of the range. Furthermore, the study shows that though the total number of spectators was significant (137,000), the primary economic impact on the host region was modest, amounting to less than NOK 9 million.

Key words: Event attendees’ composition; Economic impact; Small-scale events; Ski jumping

Address correspondence to Grzegorz Kwiatkowski, Ph.D., Department of Tourism and Marketing, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Koszalin University of Technology, Koszalin, Poland. Tel: +48 600553096; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 281–299
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14942648527518
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Olympic Experiences: The Significance of Place

Andrew Smith,* Graham Brown,† and Guy Assaker

*University of Westminster, London, UK
†School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
‡School of Business, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon

Many studies analyze how events affect places, but few examine how places affect events. Existing research suggests that the physical qualities of a venue affect event experiences, but these studies often ignore subtler dimensions of place such as symbolism, affect, and identity. By narrowly focusing on venues, existing research also tends to neglect the fact that event places are perceived at a wider scale also (e.g., the host destination). Whether these wider place factors affect event experiences is the main question addressed by this study. The research involved a quantitative study of spectators who attended the London 2012 Olympic Games. The authors developed and tested a complex model that hypothesized the effects of place on satisfaction using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). After permissions were gained from the International Olympic Committee and the London Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games, data were collected from over 600 people attending Olympic events. Research was undertaken at three different types of venue: The Aquatics Centre (a purpose-built venue), Greenwich Park (a temporary venue), and Wimbledon (an established venue). The findings showed that both venue attachment and place defined at the wider scale (at the destination level) had significant positive effects on event satisfaction. In addition, we found evidence that the different types of venues—purpose built, temporary, and established—moderated the relationship between venue attachment and event satisfaction. The results support venue attachment as a second-order factor and demonstrate the role of place symbolism within a four-dimensional conceptualization of place attachment. Ultimately, the research suggests that where an event is staged does affect event satisfaction, and this has important implications for the ways the Olympic Games and other large-scale events are staged.

Key words: Mega-events; Attachment; Satisfaction; Venues; Symbolism

Address correspondence to Andrew Smith, Reader in Tourism and Events, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, University of Westminster, 35 Marylebone Road, London, NW1 5LS, UK. Tel: +442035066658; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 301–318
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14942648527527
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Volunteers With Disabilities at the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: Who, Why, and Will They Do it Again?

Tracey J. Dickson,* Simon Darcy,† and Angela Benson‡

*University of Canberra, Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Bruce, Canberra, Australia
†UTS Business School—Management, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia
‡School of Sport and Service Management, Eastbourne Campus, University of Brighton, Brighton, UK

People with disabilities are often the recipients of volunteer services but are rarely considered as a potential volunteer resource, such as in sport events where volunteers are an essential component of major sport event operation and legacy potential. For London’s 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games, there was a determined effort by the Organizing Committee to recruit people with disabilities to be Games Makers (i.e., volunteers). This exploratory research investigated 786 London 2012 volunteers who self-identified as having disability or access needs. The research design involved an online questionnaire examining their motivations for volunteering, their experiences, their likelihood to continue volunteering, and their sociodemographic profile. This article contributes to the literature by examining the motivations of people with disability volunteering at a mega-sport event, as this has not been done previously. The factor analysis identified eight components: transactional; altruistic; it’s all about the games; volunteering community; rewards; availability; variety; and application. The solution highlighted the duality of human capital-related transactional components where the individual wanted to improve their skills and the altruistic components of giving back and it’s all about the games experience. The discussion examined these components in comparison to other mega-event volunteers to examine commonalities and contrasts.

Key words: Disability; Volunteers; London 2012; Motivations; Legacy

Address correspondence to Tracey J. Dickson, Associate Professor, University of Canberra, Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), University Avenue, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia. Tel: + 61 2 6201 2465; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 319–331
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14942648527536
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Event Venue Satisfaction and its Impact on Sponsorship Outcomes

Laura Michelini,* Gennaro Iasevoli,† and Eleni Theodoraki

*Department of Economic, Political Sciences and Modern Languages, LUMSA University, Rome, Italy
†Department of Human Science, LUMSA University, Rome, Italy
‡The Business School, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK

The importance of sponsorship as a marketing communications tool is well recognized in the event literature. Despite the growth in event sponsorship investments and the increasing importance of the role of the venue in event planning, there is still a lack of research on the impact of event venue satisfaction on sponsorship outcomes. Thus, the objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of event venue satisfaction on sponsor image, and, in particular, to verify if attendee satisfaction with the venue has a positive effect on sponsor recall, attitude, and purchase intention. The article presents the results of a survey conducted during the International Rome Film Festival, which takes place annually at the Rome Auditorium. Results suggest that attendee satisfaction with venues affects attitudes toward the sponsors and sponsor-related purchase intention, while sponsor awareness is not affected. The main contribution of the article is the development of a comprehensive model of event sponsorship evaluation, in which traditional sponsorship outcomes are considered in light of attendee satisfaction and quality of services in the sponsor-related exclusive venue zones.

Key words: Event sponsorship; Event satisfaction; Event venue; Sponsorship outcomes; Attendee satisfaction

Address correspondence to Laura Michelini, Associate Professor of Management, Department of Economic, Political Sciences and Modern Languages, LUMSA University, Via Pompeo Magno, 22 – 00192, Rome, Italy. Tel: +39 335 5957005; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 333–346
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14942648527545
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Assessing the Economic Impact of Event Management in Ireland: A Local Authority Planning Perspective

Kelly Maguire and James Hanrahan

School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Tourism and Sport, Institute of Technology, Sligo, Ireland

The purpose of this article is to examine the extent of local authority economic planning for event management in Ireland. Local authorities are increasingly using events to achieve a diverse range of economic objectives. However, achieving economic objectives can come at an expense to host communities and affect a societies social capital. Therefore, the need to plan for and manage the economic impact of events needs to be acknowledged. This study assessed 32 local authorities and city councils utilizing a content analysis approach. This methodological approach provided nationwide perspectives in relation to local authority planning for the economic impact of event management. Analysis has found that few local authorities recognized the need to provide planning guidelines and policies to manage the economic impact of event management. Therefore, support for the economic development of regions and counties in Ireland has not been realized. Further analysis revealed the necessity of providing effective policies and guidelines with the incorporation of best practice indicators to sustainably plan, manage and monitor the economic impact of event management. The findings from this article highlight the need for nationwide improvements to effectively plan for and evaluate the economic activity of event management by local authorities.

Key words: Event planning; Event management; Economic impacts; Local authority; Ireland

Address correspondence to Kelly Maguire, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Tourism and Sport, Institute of Technology, Sligo, Ireland. Tel: +353 87 915 5226; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 347–364
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14942648527554
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Attendees’ User Experience of Social Media Technology During Multiphase Participation in Conventions: A Consumption Values Approach

Wei Wei,* Ying (Tracy) Lu,† and Nan Hua*

*Hospitality Services Department, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
†Hospitality Management and Tourism, School of Human Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food & Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

This study explores attendees’ user experience with social media during their multiphase participation in conventions. Drawn from the Theory of Consumption Values, this study examines both extrinsic and intrinsic values that attendees experience when using social media technology across anticipatory, experiential, and reflective phases at conventions. With the method of theoretical sampling, qualitative data was collected from 24 in-depth interviews with individuals who had experience with using social media for convention participation. Findings revealed that social media were used to different extents as an information transmitter, relationship hub, and emotion trigger during multiphase participation in conventions. Three consumption values (i.e., functional, social, and emotional values) were identified, which enhance attendees’ experience by satisfying attendees’ need for utilitarian benefits, belonging and interpersonal relatedness, and hedonism. A model of convergence of social media usage and conventions with four propositions was proposed based on the findings. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Key words: Attendee experiences; Conventions; Events; Social media

Address correspondence to Wei Wei, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Hospitality Services Department, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Office 284C, 9907 Universal Blvd., Orlando, FL, 32819, USA. Tel: 407-903-8230; Fax: 407-903-8105; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 365–374
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14942648527563
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Event Evaluation and Design: Human Experience Mapping

Colin Beard and William Russ

Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK

This article reports a phenomenological evaluation of a small-scale cause-related event. Three complimentary methods were applied to the interpretation of data obtained from interviewing participants who took part in an event involving the experience of sleeping on the streets with homeless people in a city in the UK. The participant experience data were first explored by applying a simple multiphasic interpretation. A second layer of exploration involved separating the data into six human experience dimensions. A third and final interpretation method involved the collaborative construction of a schematic map as a composite-summative expression of the data. In order to further explore this collaborative schematic data interpretation approach, and its potential for application in event design, experience mapping has subsequently undergone further field trials with event experience designers from a range of private and public organizations across the globe, notably Singapore, Prague, Hong Kong, India, and the UK.

Key words: Event research; Event design; Phenomenology; Human experience mapping

Address correspondence to Professor Colin Beard, Events Management Subject Group, Sheffield Business School, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, S1 1WB, UK. Tel: 01142252884; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it