Tourism Review International 21(2) Abstracts

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Tourism Review International, Vol. 21, pp. 101-119
1544-2721/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427217X
14912408849395
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Residents’ Perceptions of Resettlement for Nature-Based Tourism: A Case Study of Wulingyuan Scenic Area, China

Kai Wang,* Brent D. Moyle,† and Zhimiao Li*

*College of Tourism, Hunan Normal University, Yuelu Qu, Changsha Shi, Hunan Sheng, China
†Griffith Institute for Tourism, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia

Relocation to accommodate tourism development is a contentious issue, especially surrounding natural and protected areas. Although previous studies have touched on the importance of relocation to ensure the preservation of sites of unique natural and cultural significance, few studies have explored the impacts on residents. Consequently, this article explores residents’ perceptions of the impacts of relocation to three different locations in the World Heritage Listed WulingyuanScenic Area, in China. To achieve this objective a survey was administered in March 2015. Findings revealed residents understood the potential of relocation for generating economic benefits, thus limited psychological impacts were evident. All the same, residents’ views of relocation policies were predominantly negative, with potential for substantive improvement in the management of the relocation process. Future research should consider the impact of relocation for nature-based tourism on residents’ perceptions on overall quality of life.

Key words: Relocation; Tourism; Development; World Heritage; Resident

Address correspondence to Brent Moyle, Griffith Institute for Tourism, Griffith University, 170 Kessels Rd, Nathan QLD 4111, Australia. Tel: +61 407 745 388; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 21, pp. 121-138
1544-2721/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427217X
14912408849421
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An ARDL Approach: How Robust Is Guatemala’s International Tourism Demand?

Manuel Vanegas

Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA

An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing to cointegration was used to test the robustness of Guatemala’s tourism demand from Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and the US. A robustness check was conducted on income, price, and travel cost variables. The magnitudes of the estimated income elasticity values differ from 1.41 (Panama) to 4.86 (Nicaragua). It is a greater luxury for Canada, Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and the US than tourists from El Salvador, Honduras, and Panama. In the long run, a 1% steady growth in income in Canada and El Salvador would lead to an increase in tourist arrivals by 4.33% and 3.28%, respectively, ceteris paribus. Similar results, except for El Salvador and Panama, were found for the price and the cost of travel variables. This findings on the price and cost variables imply that its statistical significance does not depend on the measures used. The results are robust to the inclusion of a composite price or separated price, and exchange rate, price of oil or price of diesel, and related independent variables in the regression. These results can assist in policy formulation and management, strategic marketing, product development, and tourism planning.

Key words: Guatemala; Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL); Tourism price; Cost of travel; Short- and long-run elasticity values

Address correspondence to Manuel Vanegas, 3579 E. Wyatt Way, Gilbert, AZ 85297, USA. Tel: 602-785-1688; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 21, pp. 139-149
1544-2721/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427217X
14912408849449
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Contribution of Tourism Revenue to Financing Protected Area Management in Southern Africa

Andrew Rylance*, Susan Snyman,† and Anna Spenceley*

*School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
†Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town & Wilderness Safaris, Rivonia, South Africa

Protected areas (PAs) are one way of conserving biodiversity, and ecosystem services and human well-being and are now recognized as an integral part of sustainable development strategies. Over the past four decades there has been a ten-fold increase in the number of protected areas globally. Increasingly however, park management agencies do not have sufficient funds to finance their conservation management activities, and most governments do not fund PA budgets fully. Furthermore, efforts to determine how much money is spent or required for PA financing has been hampered by significant data shortages, especially in the most underfunded countries as many are still unable to quantify the relative adequacy of their levels of conservation finance. This research assesses the extent to which tourism contributes towards biodiversity financing for PA management in southern African countries. It analyzes Fifth National Country Reports (produced in 2014/2015) submitted to the Convention for Biological Diversity produced for all southern African countries to determine the actual contribution of tourism to overall PA financing. It highlights that although tourism is a significant revenue source for PA authorities in southern Africa, how it is retained and reinvested back into conservation management remains ambiguous. The incompleteness and inconsistency of national level reporting presents a missed opportunity for justifying greater financing support.

Key words: Protected areas (PAs); Conservation finance; Tourism; Revenue; Southern Africa

Address correspondence to Andrew Rylance, School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Bunting Road Campus, Bunting Road, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 21, pp. 151-168
1544-2721/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427217X
14912408849458
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Airbnb: The Emergence of a New Accommodation Type in Cape Town, South Africa

Gustav Visser, Inge Erasmus, and Matthew Miller

Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa

The appearance and expansion of Airbnb as part of the sharing economy have generated a growing debate in tourism scholarship. Within sub-Saharan Africa, South Africa is currently the major focus of Airbnb operations. This article investigates the recent proliferation of Airbnb’s accommodation in Cape Town, South Africa’s premier international tourist destination. Responding to changing tourist preferences and dynamic change in readily accessible technologies, Airbnb has found a niche in the tourist accommodation market left vacant by more traditional and formal tourist accommodation types. Despite its explosive expansion, little is known about this phenomenon in South Africa. This investigation seeks to address the limited scholarship on this tourist accommodation segment in South Africa in the empirical setting of Cape Town. Issues under scrutiny are the spatial and temporal development of Airbnb in Cape Town and the characteristics of Airbnb providers and guests.

Key words: Airbnb; Tourist accommodation; Cape Town; South Africa; Sharing economy

Address correspondence to Gustav Visser, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 21, pp. 169-179
1544-2721/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427217X
14912408849467
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Festival Processes, Innovation, and Locality Response: Evidence From South Africa’s Rage Youth Festival

Devin Harmer and Jayne M. Rogerson

Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

One underrepresented theme in the burgeoning literature on festivals relates to the hosting of dedicated youth tourism festivals. Applying a qualitative research methodology, this article investigates festival development processes using the example of the annual Rage youth festival in South Africa. It is argued that despite their large economic impacts for destinations, youth tourism festivals often are controversial events that are associated with problematic social behavior by revelers. In this case study, several innovations were enacted by festival organizers for the purposes of control and containment, which potentially allows the local economic benefits to be realized at a minimal social cost. The example of the Rage Festival is instructive in the international context for demonstrating the need to understand innovative festival development processes at the microscale through a qualitative research approach, which offers fresh insight to complement traditional quantitative analysis of festival expenditure impacts.

Key words: Festival tourism; Youth tourism; Festival process; Innovation; South Africa

Address correspondence to Jayne M. Rogerson, Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Kingsway Campus, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 21, pp. 181-192
1544-2721/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427217X
14939227920829
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Business Tourism in Africa: The Case of Cameroon

Tembi Maloney Tichaawa

School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

Existing debates on tourism development in Africa largely focus on the impacts and dynamics of leisure tourism. This study turns attention to neglected issues around business tourism with specific reference to Cameroon. It critically examines the nature of business tourism in the country focusing on Cameroon’s two major cities, Douala and Yaounde. The analysis is based upon data drawn from a survey of business tourists staying in local hotels as well as semistructure interviews conducted with hotel managers/representatives. The results reveal a differentiated pattern of business tourism with representation by both domestic and international travelers and formal as well as informal sector business tourists. One distinctive element in the formal economy of business tourists is the group of “bushfallers,” which are Cameroonian citizens living abroad but retaining business interests in the country.

Key words: Business tourism; Africa; Hotel economy; Cameroon

Address correspondence to Tembi Maloney Tichaawa, School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 21, pp. 193-211
1544-2721/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427217X
14984977561745
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

City Tourism in South Africa: Diversity and Change

Christian M. Rogerson* and Jayne M. Rogerson†

*School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
†Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa

City tourism is a complex phenomenon and expanding in significance within the international tourism economy. Within the context of a vibrant and challenging global scholarship around cities as tourism destinations this article interrogates the development and trajectories of city tourism destinations in South Africa. Attention centers on unpacking the differential performance of the country’s eight metropolitan areas and its network of 22 secondary cities. This analysis confirms that cities are important multimotivated tourism destinations because people travel to them for several different purposes including for business, leisure and entertainment, to visit friends and relatives, or for health or religious reasons. It is revealed that the country’s 30 cities are key nodes in the national tourism space economy particularly for tourism spend. Evidence is shown of considerable diversity between city destinations with sharp contrasts between the patterns of tourism observed in the metropolitan areas as opposed to the secondary cities. Further differentiation is demonstrated at the level of individual city destinations in respect of different origins, purposes of travel, and relative contribution of tourism to local economic development.

Key words: City tourism; Metropolitan areas; Secondary cities; South Africa; Local development

Address correspondence to Prof Christian M. Rogerson, School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Bunting Road Campus, Bunting Road, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Review International, Vol. 21, pp. 193-211
1544-2721/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427217X
14984977561754
E-ISSN 1943-4421
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

A Case Study Into the Preparedness of White-Water Tourism to Severe Climatic Events in Southern Africa

Julia K. Giddy,* Jennifer M. Fitchett,† and Gijsbert Hoogendoorn*

*Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
†School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Extreme weather events pose a significant threat to outdoor tourism globally, as a result of their rapid onset and challenges in forecasting. These threats are particularly concerning for countries of the global South, due to their reliance on tourism and their relatively low adaptive capacity. White-water sports are especially vulnerable to climate variability as they are reliant on predictable river patterns. This article is an exploratory investigation into the experiences and perceptions of white-water tourism operators using the case study of South Africa and Namibia regarding the threats of extreme weather and climate change. It was found that extreme and unpredictable weather patterns are significantly impacting operators in this region. Many operators are thus acutely aware of the impacts of extreme weather and climate change, and have begun to implement adaptation measures. The current impacts of extreme weather associated with climatic changes and awareness within the white-water tourism sector provide a contribution to future discussions of tourism and climate change.

Key words: Adventure tourism; Extreme weather; Climate change; White-water rafting; Southern Africa

Address correspondence to Julia K. Giddy, Department of Geography, Environmental Management, and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524 Auckland Park, 2006 Johannesburg, South Africa. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it