Tourism Review International 22(3) Abstracts

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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 281-293
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216032
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


A Green Shadow: The Influence of Hotel Customers’ Environmental Knowledge and Concern on Green Marketing Skepticism and Behavioral Intentions

Donghwan Yoon* and Rachel J. C. Chen†

*Hospitality Management, Division of Engineering, Business and Computing, Pennsylvania State University, Reading, PA, USA
†Center for Sustainable Business and Development, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA

Today’s customers are frequently exposed to environmental claims and are prone to doubt whether these claims contain any truth for improving the natural environment. Customers’ negative perceptions, expressed as skepticism, may distort hotels’ green marketing efforts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the environmental knowledge of potential clients and their concerns about the environment on their skepticism toward hotels’ green marketing claims. Further, due to the noteworthy relevance of skepticism and behavioral intentions, this study also examines the influential roles of skepticism on word of mouth and visit intentions. Four hundred and eleven participants were surveyed through an online research company. The results of structural equation modeling reveal that skepticism is a negative function of environmental knowledge, while environmental concern positively influences skepticism, and skepticism negatively leads to customers’ word-of-mouth behavior and visit intentions. Further, this study provides practical implications of these findings for hotel marketers.

Key words: Environmental claim; Environmental knowledge; Environmental concern; Green marketing; Hotel; Skepticism

Address correspondence to Dr. Rachel J. C. Chen, Professor of Department of Retail, Hospitality, and Tourism Management, University of Tennessee, 246 Jessie Harris Bldg., Knoxville, TN 37996-1911, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 295-308
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216041
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


E-Commerce Expenses and Financial Performance of American Upper Midscale Hotels

Cristian Morosan,* Nan Hua,† and Agnes Defranco*

*Conrad. N. Hilton College of Hotel & Restaurant Management, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA
†Rosen College of Hospitality Management, Orlando, FL, USA

The US upper midscale hotels are increasingly dependent on information technologies and their corresponding business models to support their core business functions, especially their electronic commerce. Using data collected over 6 recent years from the same upper midscale US hotels that reported e-commerce expenses, and data from a matching sample of hotels that did not report e-commerce expenses, this study investigated the relationship between e-commerce expenses and financial performance with the aid of the resource-based theory, in order to illustrate how several types of marketing expenses such as e-commerce, loyalty, media/outdoor advertising, and total franchise expenses impact rooms revenues and gross operating profits. Among such antecedents, e-commerce expenses exhibit strong structural influences on the measures of financial performance. The results illustrate the fundamental role of e-commerce expenses in shaping the financial performance of upper midscale hotels. Several important theoretical contributions for scholars and actionable managerial suggestions for hotel decision makers are provided.

Key words: E-commerce; Firm performance; Hotel industry; Marketing strategy

Address correspondence to Cristian Morosan, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Conrad. N. Hilton College of Hotel & Restaurant Management, University of Houston, 4800 Calhound Rd., Houston, TX 77204, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 309-322
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216050
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


How Internal Branding Process Really Pays Off Through Brand Trust

Ezgi Erkmen,* Murat Hancer,† and Jerrold K. Leong‡

*School of Tourism and Hospitality, Istanbul Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey
†Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
‡School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

Internal branding is gaining importance for services to manage brand-related attitudes and behaviors of service employees. Although service branding literature points out employees’ brand commitment as the key for internal branding activities to influence their brand supporting behaviors, previous studies neglect the role of brand trust to explain both commitment and brand-related behaviors of employees. Therefore, the present study mainly aims to investigate the effect of brand trust for the relationship between internal branding and brand citizenship behaviors of employees. Data were collected from airline customer contact employees and structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed relations. The results suggest that brand trust has a significant effect on brand citizenship behaviors as well as mediates the effect of internal branding activities on brand commitment of airline employees. Managerial implications are provided for internal branding in services and further research topics are suggested.

Key words: Internal branding; Brand trust; Brand citizenship behaviors

Address correspondence to Ezgi Erkmen, Ph.D., Eski Silahtaraga Elektirik SantraliKazım Karabekir Cad. 34060, Eyup, Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 323-336
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216078
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Determinants of Tourism Crowdfunding Performance: An Empirical Study

Zhisheng Wang,* Huiying Li,† and Rob Law‡

*College of Business Administration, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou, P.R. China
†School of Management, Xiamen University, Xiamen, P.R. China
‡School of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong

This study illustrates the determinants of the crowdfunding performance in the tourism field. Drawing on a dataset of 1,807 projects from an online global crowdfunding website, this study identifies a series of factors that influence fundraising performance. Results indicate that all-or-nothing projects with a more charity-oriented theme, more high-quality images in description, and a smaller funding goal will generate better fundraising performance. Moreover, an inverted U-shaped relationship between perk scales and performance is identified, which indicates that the effect of perk scales decreases when the number of perks increases to a certain level. In addition, the number of backers and the volume of reposts in external social networks are positively related to the tourism crowdfunding performance. These results offer insights into the frontiers of tourism crowdfunding, and shed light on the general ways for project creators to obtain more funds in the tourism crowdfunding projects.

Key words: Tourism crowdfunding; Social network; Information quality; Charitable funding

Address correspondence to Huiying Li, School of Management, Xiamen University, 422 South Siming Road, Siming District, Xiamen, P.R. China, 361005. Tel: + 86-592-2188785; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 337-347
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216087
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Customer Satisfaction in Portuguese Hotels: Evidence for Different Regions and Hotel Segments

Luis Pacheco

Department of Economics, Management and Computer Sciences, Universidade Portucalense, Porto, Portugal

Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has gained importance with the emergence of new online tools, and the hospitality sector is at the core of this trend. We employ a secondary data set of hotel guest reviews from a popular online travel platform, with reviews for hotels located in the four main Portuguese tourism regions. We analyze the reviews in terms of overall satisfaction and for six specific attributes. Employing statistical tests and regression analysis we find that the “rooms,” “service,” and “cost–benefit” attributes show a greater correlation with overall satisfaction than other criteria, and those attributes are common across hotel segments and regions. The “location” and “cleanliness” attributes only appear as significant for some regions and hotel segments. For instance, the significance of “cleanliness” in lower segment hotels should merit the attention of hotel managers to allocate more resources to this. In relation to “rooms,” personal preferences and expectations may make it difficult to optimally upgrade rooms in order to satisfy a diverse clientele, whereas in regard to “service,” hotel managers across all hotel segments should prioritize staff training and service quality assessment tools in order to guarantee consistent levels of service.

Key words: Electronic word of mouth (eWOM); User-generated content; Hospitality; Satisfaction differences; Portugal

Address correspondence to Luis Pacheco, Department of Economics, Management and Computer Sciences, Room 201, Universidade Portucalense, REMIT-Research on Economics, Management and Information Technologies/IJP-Portucalense Institute for Legal Research, Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 541-619, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal. Tel: +351 225572000; Fax: +351 225572010; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 349-359
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216096
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


The Effect of Sachsenhausen Visitors’ Personality and Emotions on Meaning and Word of Mouth

Jeroen Nawijn, Miriam Bruggemann, and Ondrej Mitas

NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Academy for Tourism, Breda, The Netherlands

This study assessed the effect of visitors’ personality and emotional response on finding positive meaning in life and the intention to spread positive word of mouth. The sample (n = 260) consists of visitors to Sachsenhausen Memorial and Museum near Berlin. Findings indicate that the emotion of interest positively contributes to finding positive meaning in life and positive word of mouth. The effects of personality are marginal. Personality explains little of the variance in positive meaning and positive word of mouth. Emotional response accounts for 25% of the variance in finding positive meaning in life—in terms of finding personal benefit from the visit, controlled for personality. Despite the dominant negative emotional response, tourists find positive meaning in their visit. These findings correspond with those observed in studies on personal trauma and loss. Positive meaning could potentially contribute to adjustment processes to cope with what occurred. Future research should include address longer term effects on postvisit behavior.

Key words: Emotions; Meaning in life; Dark tourism; Tourist experiences; Cultural heritage

Address correspondence to Jeroen Nawijn, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Academy for Tourism, Mgr. Hopmansstraat 1, P.O. Box 3917, 4800 DX Breda, The Netherlands. Tel: +31765332749; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 361-375
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216104
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


An Assessment of Zoo Visitors’ Revisit Intentions

Hung-Che Wu,* Ching-Chan Cheng,† and Wien Hong‡

*Business School, Nanfang College of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China
†Department of Food and Beverage Management, Taipei University of Marine Technology, Taipei City, Taiwan
‡Department of Electronic Communication and Software Engineering, Nanfang College of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China

This study examines the interrelationships among experiential quality, affective commitment, image, novelty seeking, experiential satisfaction, and revisit intentions perceived by zoo visitors. The data comprise a sample of 510 visitors who visited the Beijing Zoo; the proposed model fits the data. The study’s results will assist zoo management to develop and implement market-orientated service strategies to increase the experiential quality and affective commitment, and enhance the image, novelty seeking and experiential satisfaction of zoo visitors so visitors generate favorable zoo revisit intentions.

Key words: Visitors’ experiential quality; Visitors’ experiential satisfaction; Visitors’ revisit intentions; Dimensions of visitors’ experiential quality

Address correspondence to Dr. Hung-Che Wu, Ph.D., Business School, Nanfang College of Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 882 Wenquan Avenue, Conghua District, Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China 510970. Tel: + (86) 13533567158; Fax: + (86) 2061787368; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 377-387
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216113
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Collective Destination Marketing in China: Leveraging Social Media Celebrity Endorsement

Benjamin P. Fath,* Antje Fiedler,* Zixuan Li,* and D. Hugh Whittaker†

*University of Auckland Business School, Auckland, New Zealand
†Nissan Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

This study examines a social media campaign initiated by Tourism New Zealand (TNZ) using Chinese actress Yao Chen as a celebrity endorser to promote New Zealand (NZ) as a tourism destination for free and independent travelers from China. Yao Chen shared her travel experiences in NZ, including her wedding in Queenstown, on her Sina Weibo microblog, which had more than 10.9 million followers, thereby raising awareness in China of NZ as a tourism destination. Drawing on a single case study, this article shows that the travel experience of a foreign celebrity shared on social media can serve as a script for a typical travel experience for potential travelers. Furthermore, to capitalize on the opportunities created by the collaborative social media campaign, government tourism agencies and businesses need to actively monitor the content on the social media site of the celebrity endorser, which in turn allows them to learn about the target customer and to customize the businesses’ offerings accordingly. However, a lack of relevant language and cultural skills can be a barrier preventing tourism businesses from realizing the benefits of such campaign.

Key words: Celebrity endorser; Social media; Collaborative destination marketing

Address correspondence to Antje Fiedler, Lecturer, University of Auckland Business School, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: 64 9 9231617; Fax: 64 9 3082312; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 389-406
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216122
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Investigating the Push and Pull Factors Between Visitors’ Motivations of Fringe and Urban Parks

Sean Lee, Vanessa Quintal, and Ian Phau

The School of Marketing, Curtin University, Perth, Australia

This exploratory study sets out to identify salient push and pull factors that draw visitors to fringe and urban parks and explores the impact these push–pull factors have on loyalty behavior. To achieve this, 829 usable responses were collected at a fringe and urban park with a self-administered questionnaire, adopting a systematic sampling method. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified two push factors (thrill-seeking and family/fun) and three pull factors (nature/conservation, children/convenience, and facilities), with some differential impacts on intention to revisit and recommend. Theoretically, the study introduces a push–pull framework relevant to fringe and urban parks that operationalizes what motivates and appeals to park visitors. Managerially, insights into the push and pull factors lead the way for policymakers to identify and allocate resources that improve specific factors and for park managers to design and implement more effective communication to visitor segments.

Key words: Push–pull framework; Motivations; Nature-based tourism; Urban park; Fringe park

Address correspondence to Ian Phau, The School of Marketing, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 407-419
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216131
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Sustainability and Resilience in Caribbean Tourism Economies: A Critical Inquiry

Ryan R. Peterson,* Rich Harrill,† and Robin B. Dipietro

*Economic Policy Division, Central Bank of Aruba, Oranjestad, Aruba, Dutch Caribbean
†School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, College of Hospitality,
Retail and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA

Despite the growth of tourism in the Caribbean, sustainable tourism studies of island societies remain fragmented and inconsistent. In this article, we provide a critical inquiry into sustainability and resilience in small island tourism economies in the Caribbean from an emic perspective, contending that current models are incompatible with understanding sustainable tourism in small island economies, let alone guiding scholars and policymakers in pursuit of strengthening resilience. We question the scientific status quo emphasizing linear modeling and steady state economics and call for a critical reconsideration of adaptation and resilience within small island economies.

Key words: Tourism; Sustainable tourism; Critical tourism; Small island developing states; Caribbean

Address correspondence to Dr. Rich Harrill, College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management, Carolina Coliseum, University of South Carolina, Assembly Street, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Tel: +1 803-777-3327; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 421-427
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216140
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Research Note

A Dual Mediation Model Approach to Evaluating the Persuasiveness of Wine Destination Websites

Vanessa Quintal and Ian Phau

School of Marketing, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia

This study utilized dual mediation theory to investigate the persuasiveness of wine destination management organizations’ (DMO) websites in influencing user cognition, attitude, and behavioral intention. Data were collected from a wine DMO’s database in Australia. Website usability had significant effects on website cognition as well as cognition of wine destination setting and wine products. Cognition of wine destination maps, settings, and wine products produced significant effects on attitude toward wine destination. In turn, attitude toward wine destination influenced further information search and intention to attend wine destination events. These findings will help DMOs to identify critical website and wine destination attributes that users seek to make informed decisions.

Key words: Wine destinations; Destination websites; Dual mediation theory; Australia

Address correspondence to Ian Phau, School of Marketing, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845. Tel: 61-8-92664014; Fax: 61-8-92663937; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 429-433
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216159
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Research Note

Economy-Wide Impact of Tourism In Malaysia: An Input–Output Analysis

Mohammad Nurul Huda Mazumder,*† Zhan Su,† Abul Bashar Bhuiyan,‡ Mamunur Rashid,§ and Abdullah Al-Mamun

*School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, George Brown College, Toronto, ON, Canada
†Faculty of Business Administration, Laval University, Québec, Canada
‡Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Selangor (UNISEL), Sha-Alam, Malaysia
§Business School, the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Selangor, Malaysia
¶Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

Because previous empirical research offers inconclusive evidence of the induced impact of tourism expenditure in Malaysia, this study utilizes a closed input–output model to analyze the total economy- wide impact of international tourist expenditure in Malaysia. The results reveal that international tourist expenditure has both a direct primary impact on tourism-related sectors and a significant secondary impact on other sectors of the economy. The findings of this study suggest that minimizing multiplier variation by adding value to tourism products and curbing import dependency increases the significance of the multipliers and impacts that are generated by international tourist expenditure. The results of this study also indicate that both the primary and secondary economy-wide impacts of tourism should be considered on the basis of many multipliers across various sectors, which is largely absent in the extant literature on the Malaysian tourism industry.

Key words: Economy-wide impact; Input–output model; Multiplier analysis; Malaysian tourism

Address correspondence to Mohammad Nurul Huda Mazumder, School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, George Brown College, Toronto, ON M5A 1N1, Canada. Tel: 1 647 472-1304; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 435-441
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
14955605216168
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.


Research Note

The Economic Contribution of Tourism in Iran: An Input–Output Approach

M. H. Imani Khoshkhoo,* Valiollah Alizadeh,* And Stephen Pratt†

*University of Science & Culture, Tehran, Iran
†School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong

Historically, Iran has been heavily dependent on crude oil revenues. However, Iran is richly endowed with many natural and cultural attractions. Possibly due to the image of being an unsafe destination, international tourism has not been developed as quickly as in other parts of the world. However, the tourism industry can play an important role in the economic growth of many countries. The economic tourism potential for Iran has been an underresearched area. An input–output model has been used to calculate income multipliers and employment multipliers to assess the economic contribution of tourism activities. Compared to other sectors in the economy, we find there is economic potential for tourism. The tourism industry can play an important role to stimulate economic growth and employment.

Key words: Input–output model; Economic contribution; Islamic Republic of Iran; Linkage analysis

Address correspondence to Stephen Pratt, School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 17 Science Museum Road, TST East, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: (852) 3400 2268; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it