Event Management 21(4) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 375–389
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14998876105729
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Managing Social Media During a Crisis: A Conundrum for Event Managers

Adrian Devine,* Karla Boluk,† and Frances Devine*

*Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ulster Business School, Ulster University (Coleraine Campus), Coleraine, Northern Ireland
†Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada

In August 2013, Northern Ireland hosted the World Police and Fire Games. The official event evaluation found that the games projected Northern Ireland in a positive light; however, this survey does not tell the full story. Leading up to this event Northern Ireland experienced 4 months of civil unrest. Many consumers turned to social media to seek reassurance and guidance. However, the event organizers did not provide such support during this crisis. In fact, by mismanaging concerns regarding political stability and visitor safety, this event in effect reinforced the negative stereotypical images of Northern Ireland and because it happened online, it was ignored in the official event evaluation. The two key lessons event organizers can learn from this case study are do not underestimate the power of social media, especially in a time of crisis, and in this digital age an event must have a social media strategy that has the flexibility to deal with a crisis.

Key words: Social media; Crisis management; Place marketing; Northern Ireland

Address correspondence to Dr. Adrian Devine, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ulster Business School, Ulster University (Coleraine Campus), Cromore Road, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, BT52 1SA. Tel: Tel 02870323960; Fax: 02870323997; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 391–402
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14998876105738
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Viability of Nonresident Open Water Swimming Event Competitors as a Target Market: A Case Study

Daniel M. Spencer* and Allison P. Adams†

*School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
†Four Seasons Resort, Hualalai, HI, USA

No research has been published on the characteristics and behavior patterns of athletes traveling to compete in open water swimming events, despite the growing popularity of such events. This article fills this gap by profiling nonresident competitors in the Waikiki Roughwater Swim, an iconic community-based event held annually on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. Data were collected in an intercept survey of swimmers shortly after they finished the race. Nonresident competitors in the event were found to be a viable market segment according to established criteria for such viability. Their significant numbers and high incomes evidenced their potential profitability and their high levels of affiliation with swimming organizations suggested that personal selling to the organizations’ leaders and advertising via the organizations’ newsletters and websites might be effective channels through which to reach them. In addition, their high levels of education, athletic identity, experienced “flow,” involvement with open water swimming, and importance ascribed to swimming “the famous Waikiki coastline” suggested that advertisements directed at them should be designed to resonate with well-educated, accomplished, and committed athletes, include reminders of the psychological and social benefits of race participation, and explicitly mention the event’s unique and attractive geographic and historical setting.

Key words: Sports events; Market segmentation; Hawaii; Waikiki Roughwater Swim; Motives; Athletic identity; Flow

Address correspondence to Daniel M. Spencer, Ph.D., Professor of Tourism Management, School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2560 Campus Road, George Hall 345, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. Tel: (808) 956-8124; Fax: (808) 956-5378; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 403–419
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14998876105747
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Event Managers Lead: Applying Competency School Theory to Event Management

Emma Abson

Department of Service Sector Management, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK

A lack of research into human resource development, managerial skillsets, and leadership practices of event managers has resulted in widespread assumptions about the nature of leadership within events, which is unsupported by primary research. This qualitative research based on semistructured interviews focused on event managers working within the business events industry. Data analysis using thematic analysis and a ranking list establishes six key leadership practices—engaging communication, strategic perspectives, critical analysis and judgement, resource management, emotional resilience, and interpersonal sensitivity. This research argues that these leadership practices are essential for the development of successful event managers. Additionally, this study shows there is tension at the heart of leadership within events—event projects are intangible and temporary in nature, providing only one opportunity to get it right and this results in event managers attempting to control all aspects of the event delivery. However, in order to be successful leaders, they also need to work in teams, motivate and empower others, and develop team members. This then is the challenge for human resource development in event management: How do event managers resolve this tension in order to become successful leaders?

Key words: Leadership; Competency school; Competencies; Event management; Business events

Address correspondence to Emma Abson, Sheffield Business School, Department of Service Sector Management, Sheffield Hallam University, Stoddart Building, Sheffield, S1 1WB, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 421–430
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14998876105756
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Image Fit Myth of Events and Destinations

Christian Dragin-Jensen* and Oliver Schnittka

*Service, Hospitality and Tourism Management, Business Academy SouthWest, Esbjerg, Denmark
†University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark

Events have become increasingly important as image builders and tourism catalysts for host destinations. Focus has been placed on obtaining high levels of image fit between an event and its host destination, in order to garner long-term image benefits, and increase revisit intentions. The aim of this article is to empirically explore for the first time values of low-fit image pairings between events and a destination on tourist revisit intentions. The findings of two events reveal that a perceived low-fit image pairing between event and destination increased revisit intentions for event tourists who had visited the destination before. Oppositely, a perceived high-fit pairing between event and destination increased revisit intentions for event tourists who had never visited the destination before.

Key words: Image fit; Destination image; Revisit intention; Event tourism

Address correspondence to Christian Dragin-Jensen, Head of Department, Service, Hospitality and Tourism Management, Business Academy SouthWestSpangsbjerg Kirkevej 103, 6700, Esbjerg, Denmark. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 431–447
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14998876105765
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Knowledge Transfer and Organizational Memory: An Events Perspective

Birgit Muskat* and Marg Deery

*MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
†School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

Although there is substantial research on various elements of knowledge management in organizations, there is a gap in our understanding of how event organizations transfer knowledge. We address this gap using qualitative interview data and show in our results that knowledge transfer processes can be categorized into three distinct phases: 1) preevent, 2) event operations, and 3) postevent. Event managers and staff mostly transfer explicit knowledge preevent; yet, tacit knowledge is transferred during the event operations. However, tacit knowledge is rarely converted into explicit knowledge in the postevent phase, and organizational memory is largely underutilized. Practical implications are deduced, suggesting for event organizations to adopt a more strategic approach to knowledge transfer. We suggest that event management then operates more effectively in this fast-paced and knowledge-intensive business environment, and better integrates heterogeneous event staff, including both paid employees and event volunteers.

Key words: Knowledge transfer; Volunteers; Tacit knowledge; Organizational memory; Event organizations

Address correspondence to Birgit Muskat, Professor, MCI Management Center Innsbruck, Weiherburggasse 8, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Tel: + 43 512 2070 3334; Fax: + 43 512 2070 3399; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 449–461
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
14998876105774
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Attendee Motivations at an International Wine Festival in China

Michael O’regan,* Jaeyeon Choe,* and Matthew Yap†

*Bournemouth University, Poole, UK
†Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau

Wine festival research has primarily focused on tourism potential and economic impact in Western wine destinations, with few studies seeking to understand what motivates those to attend a festival in a “nontraditional” wine destination. An onsite survey study (N = 366) was conducted at the 2012 Dalian International Wine and Dine Festival, China. Factor analysis suggests a unique motivational factor structure with four motivational components identified among festival attendees. They were: wine festival—where the festival event itself is a primary motive, recover equilibrium at a novel event, family and known group togetherness, and cultural exploration through interaction/socialization. An independent t test and one-way ANOVA tests found statistically significant motivational variances between attendees based on gender, age, education, income level, and employment status. These findings offer important implications for festival and event organizations that have an interest in developing and organizing wine festivals in China, and attracting Chinese mainland tourists to overseas wine festivals.

Key words: Wine festivals; Festival motivation framework; Visitors’ motivation; China; Culture

Address correspondence to Michael O’Regan, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Bournemouth University Fern Barrow, Talbot Campus, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 463–479
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
15015178156222
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Event Experiences Through the Lens of Attendees

Wei Liu, Beverley Sparks, and Alexandra Coghlan

Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia

This study takes a holistic approach to investigating customer experience at a food and wine event. Drawing on an ecosystem concept from service design and the concept of cocreation of value, the authors develop a conceptual framework to capture the complexity of customer experience. Using photo elicitation methodology to combine customers’ in situ experience as reflected in photos, narratives, and attribute ratings, the authors identify five main themes, of which sensory experience, discovery, and entertainment/fun demonstrate a high level of impact on customer experience. The photo elicitation method provides insight into fluctuations in customers’ emotions over a 1-day period and captures various customer experiences, from ordinary to extraordinary, which created the overall customer experience at the event. Results show that both positive and negative customer experiences are affected by the ecosystem, especially with respect to whether components of the system are functioning in a harmonious manner. The study’s findings demonstrate that when designing event programs, event management should be aware of the importance of balance within the ecosystem.

Key words: Photo elicitation; Event experience; Cocreation

Address correspondence to Dr. Wei Liu, Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Business 2, (G27), Room 3.40, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Parklands Drive, Southport QLD 4215, Australia. Tel: +61 7 5552 9190; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 481–496
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
15015178156231
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Model of Expectancy Motivation for Business Event Tourism: Evidence From China

Ying (Tracy) Lu

Department of Retailing and Tourism Management, School of Human Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food & Environment, University Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

This research refined the construct of attendee motivation for business event tourism by integrating perspectives from different disciplines, by examining the behavioral consequence of the refined motivation construct, and by investigating the motivation of event travelers solely. An empirical test of the motivation construct was conducted with 395 travelers attending exhibitions in China. Results showed that motivation consists of three levels: cognitive benefits sought, psychological fulfillment, and touristic desire. Cognitive and touristic motives had an effect on attendees’ satisfaction and future intentions toward events. This research also provided a better understanding of the motivation of Chinese business event travelers and market segmentations. Results showed that Chinese attendees can be classified into two clusters (i.e., passionate vs. rational) based on their attendance motivations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed regarding the refined motivation model, its influences on subsequent behavior of attendees, and characteristics of Chinese attendees for business event tourism.

Key words: Motivation; Business event tourism; Exhibitions; China

Address correspondence to Dr. Ying (Tracy) Lu, Assistant Professor, Department of Retailing and Tourism Management, School of Human Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food & Environment, University of Kentucky, 121 Erikson Hall, Lexington, KY 40506, USA. Tel: +1-859-257-4332; Fax: +1-859-257-1275; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 497–514
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
15015178156240
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Investigating the Size and Economic Value of the Business Tourist Market in Malaysia

Kashif Hussain,* Jeetesh Kumar,† Suresh Kannan,† and Manisa Mohamed Nor‡

*Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism Management, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
†Faculty of Hospitality, Food and Leisure Management, Taylor’s University, Selangor, Malaysia
‡Malaysia Convention and Exhibition Bureau (MyCEB), Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

The business tourism sector is recognized as a high-yield component of the tourism industry with hedonic economic impact on businesses, destinations, local economies, and the development of human capital. It is considered as one of the fastest developing and most profitable sectors. Therefore, the current research was set out to investigate the size and economic value of the business tourist market in Malaysia by highlighting the microareas of business tourists’ expenditure and their experience, and presenting a model defining the total economic impact (direct, indirect, and induced), contribution to employment, and contribution to tax revenue generated for Malaysia. A quantitative research approach was applied with two self-administered survey questionnaires used to collect the data (n = 5,555) in order to observe the travel information, spending patterns, and experiences of international travelers attending business events in Malaysia, which are mainly conferences and exhibitions. The economic impact assessment in the study was made using a money generation model (MGM). The current study provides its novel findings at a national level and defines business tourists (international travelers) as conference delegates and exhibition buyers attending/joining business events in Malaysia. Along with presenting the demographics, spending patterns, and behavioral patterns of the business tourists, the results also show that in 2014 the business tourism sector contributed significantly to the Malaysian economy at MYR4.7 billion (US$1.44 billion) of direct economic value, MYR9.7 billion (US$2.96 billion) of total economic impact (direct, indirect, and induced), along with 325,437 job opportunities in the local economy and MYR416 million (US$127.2 million) in tax revenue (direct, indirect, and induced).

Key words: Business tourist; Expenditure; Behavior; Economic value contribution; Malaysia

Address correspondence to Jeetesh Kumar, Faculty of Hospitality, Food and Leisure Management, Taylor’s University, Jalan SS 15/8, 47500 Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. Tel: + 60102535574; Fax: + 6035629552: E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 515–521
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
15015178156259
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Wedding Professionals’ Use of Social Media

Naehyun “Paul” Jin,* Seungwon “Shawn” Lee,* and Margaret J. Daniels†

*Tourism and Events Management, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA
†Tourism and Events Management, School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA

Despite the popularity of social media marketing, academic research specific to how event management companies use social networking to market their businesses is limited. Wedding professionals are a subsegment of event managers, and their use of social media is hindered by the nature of their business models, as most have few employees and negligible marketing budgets. The purpose of this study was to gain insight to the use of social media outlets by wedding professionals and put forth suggestions for maximizing the social media mix for small event management companies. Thirty-two wedding professionals completed a questionnaire specific to social media and networking activities, most successful marketing outlets, and barriers to utilizing social media. The findings and associated recommendations emphasize the critical nature of word-of-mouth and electronic word-of-mouth recommendations from satisfied clients, as wedding professionals rely on a customer base that is rarely prone to repeat business.

Key words: Social media; Wedding vendors; Networking; Electronic word of mouth (eWOM)

Address correspondence to Margaret J. Daniels, Ph.D., Professor, Tourism and Events Management, School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, George Mason University, 10900 University Blvd., MS 4E5, Bull Run Hall, Room 201B, Manassas, VA 20110-2203, USA. Tel: 703-993-4279; Fax: 703-993-2025; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 523–526
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X
15015178156277
E-ISSN 1943-4308

Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Welcome to Hell: Rio 2016 Olympics Failing to Secure Sustainable Transport Legacy

Acácia C. M. Malhado* and Lindemberg M. Araujo†

*Postgraduate Program in Architecture and Urbanism (DEHA), Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil
Instituto de GeografiaDesenvolvimentoMeio AmbienteUniversidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Brazil

The aim of this research note is to report on the preparation and implementation of the urban transport projects for the Rio 2016 Olympics. A range of studies shows that infrastructure development and/or improvement is the main reason for hosting a mega-event; however, initial analyses indicate the opposite. The main conclusion is that, in terms of transport, Rio de Janeiro is very unlikely to cope with its longed-for sustainable transport legacy.

Key words: Rio 2016 Olympics; Sustainability; Transport legacy

Address correspondence to Dr. Acácia C. M. Malhado, Postdoc position at the Postgraduate Program in Architecture and Urbanism (DEHA), Universidade Federal de Alagoas, UFAL, Av. Lourival Melo Mota, s/n, Tabuleiro do Martins, 57072-900 Maceió/AL, Brazil. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it