Tourism Culture & Communication 17(3) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 159-172
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
15057457661613
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Being a Female Surfer in Morocco: The Norms and Social Uses of the Beach

Christophe Guibert* and Chadia Arab†

*UFR ESTHUA Tourisme & Culture, ESO (UMR CNRS 6590), Angers, France
†ESO (UMR CNRS 6590), Angers, France

This study aims to understand how Moroccan women authorize themselves (or are allowed) to practice a sport perceived as masculine. Being a Moroccan female surfer involves combining social and cultural norms with being watched by men. Alternating between profits (social and symbolic) and disadvantages, the surfers interviewed (in interviews conducted during a field study in April and May 2014) have all been subjected to unusual early socialization with their male peers or within the family sphere (fathers and brothers). Female surfing, although quantitatively scarce, ultimately questions the inclusion of the values upheld by Moroccan society through relationships to the body in public places (beaches) and gender relations. The preferred methodology to test our research hypotheses is based on long phases of observation at preselected beaches and around 20 semistructured style interviews.

Key words: Morocco; Women surfers; Social norms; Socialization; Body

Address correspondence to Christophe Guibert, Sociologist, UFR ESTHUA Tourisme & Culture, ESO (UMR CNRS 6590), Angers, France. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 173-189
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
15057457661622
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Speaking of “Travel” in English and Russian: Lexical Semantics in Tourist Reviews

Tatiana M. Permyakova, Irina S. Morozova, and Elena A. Smolianina

Department of Foreign Languages, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Perm, Russia

The purpose of this study is to analyze the linguistic universality and variability of the concept of travel in the English and Russian languages. The linguistic method employs a four-step procedure including analysis of culturally “biased” dictionary entries of travel vocabulary in English and in Russian as well as a comparative analysis of lexical structures in English and Russian discursive contexts. The data include: (a) 14 concise dictionaries containing 14 definitions of the word travel and 42 definitions of its synonyms, and (b) 774 user-generated collocations and word combinations with travel, collected from on-line tourists’ reviews on English and Russian travel websites. The results show that, despite common background information on Destination, Time, and Means of Transport, there are selective ways in which English-speaking and Russian-speaking tourists perceive their travel experiences. In particular, even in the context of global traveling and the use of similar words, English-speaking and Russian-speaking tourists see some of the themes (Memorable travel, Fabulous travel, Nature, Feelings, and Emotions) differently. From an interlinguistic perspective, the results of the study are indicative of stereotypical linguistic reactions to travel experiences in the English language, and of an emphasis on the differentiation of feelings in the Russian language as a manifestation of tourists’ linguistic personality and cultural identity.

Key words: English; Russian; Tourism; Travel; Tourists’ reviews

Address correspondence to Irina S. Morozova, Department of Foreign Languages, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Studencheskaya St. 38, Perm, Russia 614070. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 191-200
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
15057457661631
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Older Tourists, Bars, and Instant Conviviality in Pub Street, Siem Reap, Cambodia

Claudia Bell

Department of Sociology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

This an investigation of older tourists and street life. The purpose is to include this group in accounts of tourist practices, and to invite recognition of the value of such places to this demographic. Distinct tourist zones in popular tourist cities attract patrons of all ages and nationalities. Streets of cafés, bars, and restaurants provide a warm welcome, “local color,” sustenance, relaxation, and companionship. Pub Street, Siem Reap, Cambodia is one such street. The region is home of the famous Angkor Watt temple complex. After sightseeing, here people relax, eager for conversation with anyone happy to sit and chat. Many are retirees or elderly visitors, welcome as consumers in this entertainment precinct. This article extends my exploration of Western retirees in Southeast Asia. A key aim is to note the significance to older tourists of a particular visitor space. In a street they perceived as safe and welcoming they happily defy the stereotypical expectations of their behavior as “old people” back home. But what was the practicable and ethical way to collect material from the visitors as they socialized? It was quickly found that participants were readily accessed. Mobile subjects need mobile methods; immersion in the activities of the subjects under study dissolved the barriers between researcher and participant. An approach for a formal interview later would not work, as many departed from Seim Reap early the next day. Ephemeral events and behaviors could only be captured in this way, even though it challenged institutionalized protocols about what appropriately constitutes research. This article contributes a new strand to spatial studies, locating older tourist as enthusiastic patrons of entertainment precincts. The scope of this project has been limited to just the small precinct of Seim Reap.

Key words: Tourists; Retirees; Mobile methods; Conversation; Cambodia; Bars

Address correspondence to Dr. Claudia Bell, Department of Sociology, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 201-216
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
15057457661640
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Does International Travel Boost One’s Interest in Foreign Policy? Attitude Change Among Tourists

Kevin Carder*† and Satoshi Machida†

*Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Colorado-Denver, Denver, CO, USA
†Department of Political Science, University of Nebraska-Kearney, Kearney, NE, USA

The purpose of this study is to examine the process through which people develop their interest in global issues. More specifically, this study examines how people’s traveling experiences affect their views on the importance of foreign policy. Consistent with the “intergroup contact theory,” we hypothesize that exposure to foreign cultures boosts people’s interest in foreign policy, because traveling involves direct interactions with people from different backgrounds. In order to examine our hypotheses, we conducted an online survey among more than 1,000 adults living in the US. The results of the OLS analyses show that traveling enhances people’s recognition of foreign affairs as an important issue. Dissecting the impact of traveling on people’s interest in foreign policy, this study makes an important contribution to the literature, with implications that are highly relevant in the era of globalization.

Key words: Tourism; Interest in foreign policy; Intergroup contact theory; Online survey

Address correspondence to Satoshi Machida, Department of Political Science, University of Nebraska-Kearney, Warner 2248, 905 West 29th Street, Kearney, NE 68849, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 217-223
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
15057457661640
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Communication Skills in the Tourism Sector: The Speech Culture of Tour Guides

Jasna Potočnik Topler

Faculty of Tourism, University of Maribor, Brežice, Slovenia

This article examines the study of the speech culture of 103 Slovene tour guides employing tourism discourse in their mother tongue by using participant observation, active listening, and linguistic analysis. Besides the knowledge of foreign languages, for tourism guides the mother language skills in the current study of the Slovene language play a significant role. However, it turned out that also, in the education of tour guides, this area is not regulated systematically and is not a part of tour guides’ education modules in Slovenia, but left to the individual’s life-long learning process or to the acquired level of knowledge during formal schooling in secondary or grammar schools. Consequently, tour guides are not yet trained systematically in speech culture. It should be observed that in the analyzed speech situations the usage of dialects, which can contribute to the quality of the tourist experience in some speech situations, was not appropriate. The guides’ language during their presentations and guidance had stronger or weaker traces of dialects and they also often made some typical pronunciation mistakes, such as pronouncing the incorrect syllable, the incorrect pronunciation of the l-participles, or the incorrect pronunciation of some proper name also in speech situations that required the use of standard language instead of dialects. All this can result in the negative tourist experience, especially when tourists are more demanding.

Key words: Speech; Tour guide; Language; Pronunciation; Communication

Address correspondence to Jasna Potočnik Topler, Faculty of Tourism, University of Maribor, Slomškova 11, 8250 Brežice, Slovenia. Tel: +386-51-384-340; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 229
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Erratum

This article was originally published in Volume 17, Number 2, pages 107–117 (https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X14966810027553). The author’s name was incorrectly displayed in the original article. Below is shown the corrected author name and the online version is corrected as it should have appeared.

A Case of “Disneyization”? The Cheung Chau Bun Festival, Hong Kong

Hiu Yan Lee

Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

The Bun Festival is an important cultural event on Cheung Chau, an outlying island in Hong Kong, best known for its “bun snatching” competition, in which competitors scramble up bamboo towers covered with steamed buns, vying to retrieve the greatest number of buns within a time limit. Originating as a traditional Taoist ritual, the Festival has recently emerged as a popular tourism event. This article explores the evolutionary process of the Festival from a local folk religious practice into a themed event. The researchers discuss the perceptions of visitors and residents towards the changing Festival, and their concerns about development. Applying Bryman’s four trends of “Disneyization,” it is observed that the contemporary Bun Festival has parallels with the development and marketing of the various Disney parks. In addition to socioeconomic problems associated with the huge influx of tourists on this normally tranquil island, the article proposes that transformation into a tourism spectacle has caused the loss of the event’s uniqueness and threatens its cultural authenticity.

Key words: Cultural heritage tourism; Disneyization; Bun festival; Cheung Chau; Hong Kong

Address correspondence to Hiu Yan Lee, Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, Room 1023, 10th Floor, The Jockey Club Tower, Centennial Campus, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it