Tourism Analysis 22(4) Abstracts

Return to Tourism Analysis>

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 451-466
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805452013
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

The Prestige of Hospitality Occupations

Valeriya Shapoval and Abraham Pizam

Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orland, FL, USA

To date, little research has been conducted on the occupational prestige of hospitality occupations. To fill that gap, this study attempted to assess the perceived prestige of a select group of hospitality occupations among the general population in the US. Using social identity theory, several aspects of occupational prestige were compared between a select group of hospitality occupations and similar professions in other industries. For this purpose, a representative sample reflecting the US population was surveyed online. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), logistic regressions, and t tests were conducted to compare different aspects of occupational prestige. The results demonstrate that contrary to common beliefs, many hospitality jobs are not perceived to be lower in prestige than similar jobs in other industries. Furthermore, the respondents’ demographic characteristics, such as employment status, income, race, age, and gender did not affect the difference in the perception of prestige between hospitality occupations and similar professions in other industries.

Key words: Occupational prestige; Hospitality occupations; Honor; Pride; Respect

Address correspondence to Valeriya Shapoval, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Blvd., Orlando, FL 32819, USA. Tel: 407-903-8252; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 467-482
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805452022
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Does Tourism Sustain Economic Growth? Wavelet-Based Evidence From the United States

Arshian Sharif,* Shrabani Saha,† and Nanthakumar Loganathan

*Research and Publications, Department of Management Sciences, Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan
†Lincoln International Business School, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK
‡Faculty of Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

This study explores the relationship between tourism development and economic growth in a high tourist arrival country such as the US by adopting the wavelet transform approach using monthly data over the period 1996M01–2015M08. Three innovative techniques that are continuous wavelet, wavelet coherence power spectrum, and wavelet-based Granger causality that consider the decomposition of time series of different time frequencies are utilized to conduct the study. The results of autoregressive distributed lag and combine cointegration tests show that there is a significant long-run relationship occurring between tourism development and economic growth in the US. Furthermore, the results indicate that there is a unidirectional causal influence of economic growth on tourism development in the short run whereas in the long run the opposite causal relationship is evident in the US. Thus, it can be recommended that government needs to increase and promote tourism demand and further provide and nurture the expansion of tourism supply with the advancement of economic growth.

Key words: Wavelet analysis; Continuous wavelet transform; Wavelet coherence; Tourism development; United States

Address correspondence to Arshian Sharif, Lecturer and Assistant Manager, Research and Publications, Department of Management Sciences, Iqra University, Karachi, 75300, Pakistan. Tel: +92-333-3274-879; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 483-496
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805452031
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Travel Intention of Brazilian Students: Are They Ready to Discover New Places and Things?

Asad Mohsin,* Jorge Lengler,† and Carlos Mello Moyano

*Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, The University of Waikato Management School, Hamilton, New Zealand
†Department of Marketing, Operations and Management, ISCTE IUL Business School, Lisbon, Portugal
‡University de Santa Cruz do Sul, Santa Cruz do Sul, Brazil

This article explores the holiday motives of Brazilian student travelers. It tests whether relaxation, feel-good experience, and socialization impact their preferences to link with natural experiences and therefore provide them with reasons to travel. The authors propose a conceptual model with four hypotheses to test the importance of relaxation, feel-good experience, and socialization towards natural experience and its impact on intention to discover new places and things. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood method is used to test all relationships simultaneously (Amos 20.0). The analysis of 327 respondents suggests a negative correlation between “exploring for relaxation” and Brazilian students’ perception of New Zealand as a place to “explore for natural experience.” The results indicated that “feel-good” experiences and exploring socialization have a positive impact on the way respondents perceive destinations such as New Zealand as a place to explore for natural experience. The results also indicate a positive relationship between perceived natural experience and the intention to discover new places. Due to the paucity of tourism literature written in English, about Latin American markets, findings from the current study have significant implications for both academics and destination managers.

Key words: Holiday attitudes; New Zealand; Brazil; Students; Travel

Address correspondence to Dr. Asad Mohsin, Associate Professor, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, The University of Waikato Management School, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand. Tel: -64-7-858 5061; Fax: -64-7-838 4331; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 497-509
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805452059
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

A Multilayered Macro Approach to Conceptualizing the Winescape Construct for Wine Tourism

Johan Bruwer* and Michael J. Gross†

*School of Marketing, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
†School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia

The wine tourism literature is still in its nascent stage as far as the conceptualization of the winescape construct is concerned. In our study 407 responses are collected through a self-administered survey in an Australian wine region. This research contributes to the winescape knowledge base using a triad of methods and a measured multilayered approach by first applying content analysis to the holistic or free-text technique to measure wine region image. Having identified a number of winescape elements, the pick-any technique is then used to further validate the existence of the winescape elements and some of its dimensions. Finally, we empirically validate a 25-item winescape scale through a measurement model, using a macroapproach (viewing the winescape as a wine region or route) and servicescape theory as framework. The winescape scale tests and extends the applicability of the servicescape framework to the macrocontext of a wine region.

Key words: Winescape; Servicescape; Content analysis; Pick-any; Wine tourism; Regional destination image

Address correspondence to Professor Johan Bruwer, School of Marketing, Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. Tel: +61 +8 8302 0135; Fax: +61 +8 8302 0442; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 511-521
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805452068
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Tourism, Time, and the Last Chance

David Fisher and Emma J. Stewart

Department of Tourism, Sport and Society, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand

Last chance tourism (LCT) is tourism where individuals rush to view and experience vanishing resources before they are altered or disappear entirely. As a documented phenomenon LCT is relatively new, with most of the observations only considering the natural environment. Additionally, the concept of LCT lacks theoretical underpinning. This article addresses the theoretical gap. Two criteria are identified for LCT without which it will not exist. First is a perception that time is running out. Second is a sense of loss. Loss aversion is linked to a sense of loss which, when combined with time, provides a basis for the development of a model explaining why a visitor may choose one last chance destination over another even if the loss of that site may not be considered as important. The model also provides a basis for LCT to include places other than natural environments. A sense of impending loss can also be experienced for other types of tourism sites.

Key words: Last chance tourism (LCT); Time; Loss aversion

Address correspondence to David Fisher, Department of Tourism, Sport and Society, PO Box 85084, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury, New Zealand. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 523-536
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805452077
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Exploring Motivations for Studying Abroad: A Case Study of Taiwan

Cheng-Fei Lee

Department of Marketing Management, Shih Chien University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

This study examined the factors that motivate international students from the decision to study to the choice of a country in which to study abroad. A survey was conducted with 555 international students undertaking university-level education in Taiwan. A principal component factor analysis was used to identify the underlying dimensions of push and pull forces: two push and six pull motivation factors. Among these, desire to international travel and experience and tourism attractionswere regarded as the most important push and pull motivation factors, respectively. Although education-related motivation at both individual and host country levels remains the fundamental reason to study abroad, tourism-related motivation seems to play an even more important role in the study abroad decision-making process. Motivations for studying abroad vary across nationalities and levels of study, indicating that international students are not a homogeneous market. Major implications are four fold: exploring the potential cooperation between the higher education and tourism sectors; posting its unique and specific tourism attributes on the official websites of both governments and higher education institutions; customizing the positioning strategies on the basis of international student market segment by nationality and level of study; and forming strategic alliances between local and foreign universities.

Key words: International students; Push and pull factors; Study abroad motivation; Destination choice; Taiwan

Address correspondence to Cheng-Fei Lee, Associate Professor, Department of Marketing Management, Shih Chien University, No. 200, University Rd, Neimen Shiang, Kaohsiung Campus, Taiwan, 845, ROC. Tel: 886-076678888, ext. 6126; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 537-550
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805452086
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Terrorism, War, and Volatility in Tourist Arrivals: The Case of Lebanon

Mohamad Hamadeh and Charbel Bassil

Faculty of Business and Economics, Department of Economics, Notre Dame University–LouaizeZouk Mikael, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon

In this article we investigate the link between fluctuations in tourist arrivals (total, Arabs, Europeans) to Lebanon and terrorism in Lebanon on one hand, and the Syrian civil war on the other hand. This is done by estimating a set of models from the GARCH(1,1) family. Hence, in this article we attempt to model the conditional mean and conditional variance of the logarithm of monthly tourist arrivals to Lebanon between January 1995 and December 2014. The results reveal a significant negative marginal effect for terrorism on tourism demand. Moreover, terrorism is found to have a negative impact on the volatility of total international arrivals and Arab arrivals, but a positive impact on the volatility of European arrivals. Hence, terrorism reduces fluctuations in tourist arrivals in the first two cases, but increases fluctuations in the third case. However, terrorism has a transitory effect on the Lebanese tourism sector while the Syrian civil war has a permanent effect. In fact, during the Syrian civil war the volatility of the Lebanese tourism demand decreased.

Key words: Terrorism; War; Tourism demand; Tourism volatility; GARCH model

Address correspondence to Charbel Bassil, Faculty of Business and Economics, Department of Economics, Notre Dame University–Louaize, P.O Box 72 Zouk Mikael, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 551-562
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805452130
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

The Impact of Travel Brochures on Perceptions of Authenticity at Aboriginal Tourist Sites

Janet Chang,* Yao-Chin Wang,† and Tzu Lien Lin‡

*Graduate Institute of Taiwan Food Culture, National Kaohsiung University of Hospitality and Tourism, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC
†Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management at School of Management, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, China
‡Department & Graduate School of Tourism Industry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC

This study examines the relationships among effective travel brochures, tourists’ characteristics, and perceptions of authenticity of aboriginal heritage sites. Using as a target research scene two aboriginal stone pillars on Taiwan’s East Coast, a total of 405 questionnaires are collected and analyzed. Empirical results reveal that tourists’ perceptions toward travel brochure usage differ significantly, depending on their gender, people who they are traveling with, and the methods of transportation. More specifically, this study also finds that tourists’ type of travel companion and methods of transportation significantly influence their perceptions of authenticity during a visit to aboriginal heritage sites. Tourists generally feel that effective travel brochures can enrich their visit experience, assist trip planning, and enhance the sense of authenticity of the introduced aboriginal heritage sites. Given the significant effects that an effective travel brochure has in strengthening tourists’ perceived authenticity, the relevant destination management institutions could cooperate with both formal educational institutes and informal continuing learning centers in transferring their knowledge into the design of effective travel brochures.

Key words: Aboriginal tourism; Heritage sites; Travel brochure; Authenticity perception; Tourist characteristics

Address correspondence to Yao-Chin Wang, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management at School of Management, Xiamen University, 422 Siming S Rd, Siming Dist., Xiamen City, Fujian Province 361005, China. Tel: 86-130 5520 1057; Fax: +886- (07)8024582; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 563-568
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805452158
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Research Note

The Construction of a Security Coefficient for Tourist Destinations Based on Travel Insurance Purchase Behavior

Maximiliano E. Korstanje* and Babu P. George†

*Department of Economics, University of Palermo, Buenos Aires, Argentina
†Department of Management, Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS, USA

Tourism is risky and the insecurities associated with travel to unfamiliar places can reduce tourism demand. However, destinations posing risk are not always avoided; risk could even be an aspect inherently contributing to the attractiveness of certain destination types. Tourists are known to employ various risk management strategies to mitigate risk, among which travel insurance is the most prominent one. In that sense, travel insurance purchase behavior is a valid measure of the perceived destination security held by tourists: the more the perceived insecurity, the higher the propensity to buy travel insurance. In this research note, we formulate the concept of a destination security quotient. Implications of the use of this method to measure perceived destination security are discussed.

Key words: Risk perception; Tourism security; Destination; Travel insurance

Address correspondence to Maximiliano E. Korstanje, Department of Economics, University of Palermo, Larrea 1079, Buenos Aires, Argentina 1414. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 569-576
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805737530
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Research Note

Recognizing Changes in the Chinese Outbound Tourism Source Market

Rong Wu* and Tianxiang Zheng†

*Geography and Planning School of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P.R. China
†Shenzhen Tourism College of Jinan University/JNU-UF International Joint Laboratory on Information Technology & Tourism, Shenzhen, Guangdong, P.R. China

This study presents a geographic market segmentation and evolutionary approach by examining regional differences in Chinese outbound market and its distribution. To do this, two well-known empirical regularities that are used in urban geography—the primate city and rank-size rule—are employed to measure changes and trends. The research findings show that as the scale of the core region (mega in size with respect to tourist volume) increases, peripheral regions (small and medium sized), with ununiform speed, respond quickly to this change. The results also show how the market has evolved over the time period as well as the trends of development between core and peripheral regions. Understanding such implications may help Western providers better serve this unique and idiosyncratic market.

Key words: China’s outbound tourism market; Tourist source market; Tourist volume; Regional diversities

Address correspondence to Tianxiang Zheng, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Shenzhen Tourism College of Jinan University/JNU-UF International Joint Laboratory on Information Technology & Tourism, No.6, Qiaocheng East Avenue, Overseas Chinese Town, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, P.R. China 518053. Tel: +8613719366354; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it  or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 577-582
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805737549
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Research Note

The Utilization of Critical Incident Technique to Examine Chinese Tourists’ Cruising Motivations and Constraints

Suiwen (Sharon) Zou,* Steven J. Migacz,† and James F. Petrick

*The U.S.-Asia Center for Tourism and Hospitality Research, School of Sport, Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
†Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

The cruise industry is witnessing a dramatic boom in China, yet little is known about Chinese cruise tourists. This study examined Chinese tourists’ cruising motivations and constraints using critical incident technique. Results revealed Chinese tourists were most motivated by new/novel/special experiences, comfortableness/relaxation, and view/proximity to the sea, and most constrained by time constraints, safety concerns, seasickness, and financial constraints. Differences in cruising images among incident groups were investigated. Based on the characteristics found among the incident groups, practical implications were suggested.

Key words: Critical incident technique; Chinese tourists; Cruise tourism; Motivations; Constraints

Address correspondence to Suiwen (Sharon) Zou, The U.S.-Asia Center for Tourism and Hospitality Research, School of Sport, Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA. Tel: +01 2023511215; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis, Vol. 22, pp. 583-588
1083-5423/17 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15023805737701
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
.

Research Note

Determinants of Territorial Seasonality: A Case Study for Spanish Tourist Municipalities

Judith Turrion-Prats and Juan Antonio Duro

Department of Economics and CREIP, University Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain

Seasonality in tourism consists of the disequilibrium in tourist numbers over the course of the year and has become one of the main problems for the sustainability and growth of the sector. Given the need for quantitative literature on the subject, the primary focus of the present study is an exploration of the explanatory factors of seasonality across a wide range of Spain’s tourist destinations for the period 2006–2012. The econometrical analysis is based on a fixed-effects panel data model. Several implications may be derived in terms of tourist policy.

Key words: Tourist seasonality; Tourist destinations in Spain; Tourist demand; Determinants

Address correspondence to Judith Turrion-Prats, Department of Economics and CREIP (University Rovira i Virgili), Av. de la Universitat, 1, 43204 – Reus, Spain. Tel: +34 977 758910; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it