Event Management 21(6) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 639–652
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15073047237188
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Participation Versus Nonparticipation in a Charity Running Event

Mona Mirehie,* Richard J. Buning,†1 and Heather J. Gibson*

*Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
†Department of Tourism, Conventions, and Event Management, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA

Hosting sport events to raise money for charitable causes has become pervasive, yet we know little about why individuals choose to participate or not. This study examined the differences between participants and nonparticipants of a hallmark small-scale charity running event. Data were collected via an online survey containing measures of charity event participation frequency, enduring involvement, negotiation efficacy, family support, running participation patterns, and demographics. Nonparticipants were also asked about event-related participation constraints. The sample was comprised of N = 322 event participants and N = 112 nonparticipants (committed runners). A one-way ANOVA demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the two independent samples with respect to the variables of interest. Nonparticipants indicated relatively low constraints to event participation. The most commonly reported constraints solicited in an open-ended question format were injuries and participation in an alternative event. Findings revealed that event participants and nonparticipants are very similar in terms of their running participation patterns. However, definite nonnegotiable constraints or preplanned involvement with other events inhibited participation in the studied event. Over time, this can result in either the expansion or contraction of their involvement in the running event. By illuminating nonnegotiable constraints, this study may help event organizers improve planning and management towards event sustainability.

Key words: Enduring involvement; Constraints; Charity running events; Nonparticipation; Participant sport events; Negotiation efficacy

1Current affiliation as of January 1, 2018: UQ Business School, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Address correspondence to Mona Mirehie, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, 300 Florida Gym, PO Box 118208, Gainesville, FL 32611-8208, USA. Tel: (352) 294-1678; Fax: (352) 392-7588; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 653–664
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15073047237197
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Festival Quality Evaluation Between Local and Nonlocal Visitors for Agriculture Food Festivals

Hyungsuk Choo* and Duk-Byeong Park†

*Tourism, Leisure, and Event Planning, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, USA
†Department of Community Development, Kongju National University, Gongju, Republic of Korea

This study aims to compare how local and nonlocal visitors similarly and differently perceive the quality of agricultural festival and satisfaction, thus resulting in similar or different behavioral outcome. Multigroup SEM was used to test the moderating effect of local and nonlocal visitors on each path relationship proposed in the model. The results of analysis showed that festival program contributed to satisfaction the most, followed by information service and environment for local visitors. The effect of festival program was also found to be the highest for nonlocal visitors’ satisfaction, but the effect of environment was almost as high as that of festival program, followed by food products and information service. The effect of facility was also statistically significant for nonlocal visitors, but its impact was negative. By the differences of quality perception and its resulting behavioral intentions between local and nonlocal visitors, this study provides insight into how to design an agricultural food festival and its marketing programs in such a way that strategically employs the differences between local and nonlocal visitors.

Key words: Festival quality; Festival satisfaction; Local visitor; Nonlocal visitor

Address correspondence to Hyungsuk Choo, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Tourism, Leisure, and Event Planning, Bowling Green State University, 113 Eppler S., Bowling Green, OH 43402, USA. Tel: 419-372-7862; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it  or Duk-Byeong Park, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Community Development, College of Industrial Science, Kongju National University, Daehak-ro 54, Yesan-gun, Chungnam, 340-702, Republic of Korea. Tel: 82-41-330-1383; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 665–681
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15073047237205
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Effects of Trade Show Environments on Visitors

Jehn-Yih Wong,* Tzu-Hui Li,* Annie Chen,† and Norman Peng‡

*Department of Tourism, Ming Chuan University (TW) Department of Business Administration, Taiwan, ROC
†Graduate School, University of West London, London, UK
‡Marketing and Business Strategy, University of Westminster, London, UK

Tourism trade shows that are open to the public as well as to buyers and sellers are an emerging channel for the promotion of products to potential tourists. However, few studies have explored the influence of environmental stimuli on nonbusiness visitors’ emotions. Moreover, the moderating effect of visitors’ expectations remains understudied in the context of trade show management. To address this issue, this study reports on research derived from 611 respondents at a Taiwanese tourism trade show through a modified Mehrabian–Russell model. Structural equation modeling of the data shows that positive emotions positively influence behavioral intentions, but negative emotions do not negatively influence behavioral intentions. Among the three stimuli (i.e., information rate, service staff quality, and atmospherics), only information rate and service staff quality positively affect positive emotions and negatively affect negative emotions. The results show that visitors with high and low trade show visit expectations react differently to environmental stimuli at trade shows.

Key words: Tourism trade show; Environment; Expectations; Emotions; Mehrabian–Russell mode

Address correspondence to Norman Peng, Ph.D., University of Westminster, Westminster Business School, 35 Marylebone Road, NW1 5LS, London, UK. Tel: +44-(0)20-7911-5000; E-mail This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 683–695
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15073047237214
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Special Events and Social Reform: The Case of the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras Parade and the Australian Marriage Equality Movement


Amanda Ford* and Kevin Markwell†

*La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria
†School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia

This article reports on a study undertaken to critically consider the intersections between special events and social reform through the empirical lens of the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras Parade and its presentation of same sex marriage (marriage equality), which has become a significant contemporary political and social issue in Australia. The Parade is the public highlight of a festival that celebrates lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex identities and which has become an internationally significant tourism event, attracting large numbers of both domestic and international tourists. Yet, the holding of such an important event, now in its 39th year, which publicly acknowledges and celebrates alternative sexualities, is contrasted with the systemic discrimination and prejudice based on sexual and gender identity that continues to persist in contemporary Australian society. The absence of marriage equality is one such form of discrimination. Participant observation of the 2014 parade together with interviews with a number of prominent members of the gay and lesbian community enabled the extent to which the Parade is able to facilitate a broader understanding of the marriage equality issue to be critically understood.

Key words: Special events; Social reform; Social capital; Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras; Australian marriage equality

Address correspondence to Kevin Markwell, School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Military Road, Lismore, NSW, Australia. Tel: +61 2 6626 9366; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 697–711
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15073047237223
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Attractiveness of Australian Events to Chinese Visitors and Barriers to Attendance

Liz Fredline and Xin Jin

Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia

This article explores the attractiveness of Australian events to Chinese visitors. The Chinese have become the most important inbound market for Australia and this trend is likely to continue in the near future. Traditionally, Chinese visitors have been interested in sightseeing, but they are becoming more sophisticated in their travel behaviors and are seeking more active experiences. This exploratory study investigated whether Chinese visitors are attracted to events, what types of events they are likely to be interested in, and what factors impede their attendance at events based on data collected from Chinese tourists by travel agents in Guandong province. It was found that some Chinese tourists are interested in events, particularly festivals and cultural events, as well as certain hallmark sporting events. It was also found that interest in events appears to increase with travel experience, which bodes well for Australian events in the future as the Chinese travel market continues to mature. The findings will contribute a further cultural dimension to the event literature and help inform marketing and operations for individual events organizers and destination marketing associations.

Key words: Chinese; Events; Attractiveness; Barriers

Address correspondence to Liz Fredline, Department of Tourism, Sport and hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Business 2 (G27), Room 3.29, Gold Coast campus, Griffith University, QLD 4222, Australia. Tel: +61 7 5552 8697; Fax: +61 7 5552 8507; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 713–728
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15073047237232
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Predicting Intention to Volunteer for Mega-Sport Events in China: The Case of Universiade Event Volunteers

Kai Jiang,* Luke R. Potwarka,* and Honggen Xiao†

*Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
†School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

Attracting and retaining a loyal base of volunteers is critical to the success of mega-sport events (MSEs). The purpose of this study was to examine the antecedents of MSE volunteering in a Chinese context. Drawing upon self-determination theory, the study establishes a valid structural equation model of antecedents of Chinese volunteers’ satisfaction and their intention to volunteer in future MSEs. The XXVI Summer Universiade provides a case-specific context. After a pilot study to validate questionnaire items, location-based convenience sampling was employed to collect data from Universiade volunteers. A total of 1,015 questionnaires were completed and analyzed. Results from the covariance-based structural equation modeling analysis showed that all of the three exogenous factors—external attractiveness, altruism, and intrinsic motivation—emerged as significant predictors of volunteer satisfaction. In turn, volunteers’ perceived level of satisfaction predicted future MSE volunteer intention. Our findings reveal unique differences between Chinese sport event volunteers and their Western counterparts. Implications for event planning and volunteer program design are discussed.

Key words: External attractiveness; Intrinsic motivation; Altruism; Mega-sport events (MSEs); Volunteering

Address correspondence to Kai Jiang, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, N2L 3G1. Tel: +1 519-722-1021; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 729–746
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15073047237241
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Residents’ Perceptions of Convention Centers: A Distance Decay Analysis

Shina Li,* Shuang Cang,† Rhodri Thomas,‡ and Seong Duk Hyun§

*Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
†Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset, UK
‡Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK
§BEXCO, Busan Exhibition & Convention Centre, Busan, South Korea

Public investment in convention centers represents a relatively common approach to stimulating economic development in many large cities throughout the world. The rationale is that metropolitan authorities can thereby attract business tourists and promote positive (business friendly) images of their locality. Although the economic dimension of such spending has received some attention, especially by consultants, there has been little theorizing or empirical research that has examined residents’ perceptions of such development. This is in sharp contrast to examinations of resident perceptions of leisure tourism, which has witnessed extensive academic interest. This article analyzes residents’ perceptions of the Busan Exhibition and Convention Centre in South Korea. Distance decay theories, geographic decay, and cognitive decay are used to inform the analysis. The findings indicate that increasing residents’ engagement with, and knowledge of, convention centers is likely to engender positive perceptions of their impacts. It is suggested that urban policymakers in many parts of the world could learn from this study and should take residents’ perceptions into account when financing and managing convention centers.

Key words: Convention centers; Residents’ perceptions; Geographic decay; Cognitive decay

Address correspondence to ShiNa Li, Ph.D., Professor, School of Tourism Management, Zhuhai Campus of Sun Yat-Sen University, Tangjiawan, Xiangzhou District, Zhuhai, Guangdong, China. Tel: +86 2084114584; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 747–770
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15073047237250
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Pre- and Postevaluation of Residents’ Participation and Support of the 2012 London Olympics

Nikolaos Pappas

Reader in Tourism, Hospitality & Events, Department of Tourism, Hospitality & Events, Sunderland Business School, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, UK

Even if the participation of locals is limited in mega-event decision making, their support is crucial to the event’s success. Using Social Exchange Theory, the study examines the extent to which community participation and perceived impacts affect residents’ support of mega-events. Implementing a structural model, the examination is based on the combination of two pieces of research undertaken before and after the London Olympics. Findings confirm the importance of perceived benefits and costs in community support. They also reveal the increase in positive perceptions after the event, the strengthening of community participation willingness and residents’ support, and provide an understanding of the role of perceived success in perspective formulation. Moreover, the study uses an explanatory model for the visualization of the findings.

Key words: Community participation; Perceived impacts; Mega-events; Residents’ attitudes; Support model

Address correspondence to Nikolaos Pappas, Reader in Tourism, Hospitality & Events, Sunderland Business School, University of Sunderland, Sir Tom Cowie Campus, St. Peter’s Way, SR6 0DD, Sunderland, UK. Tel: +44 (0)191 515 2651; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 771–787
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15073047237269
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Memorable Experiences in Customer–Customer Interactions (CCIs) at Conferences

Wei Wei* and Li Miao†

*Hospitality Services Department, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
†School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Human Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

Memorable experiences influence consumers’ behavioral intentions and determine a business’s ability to generate revenue. Provided that conference experience is by and large driven by attendees’ engagement in customer–customer interactions (CCIs), this study is to identify what defines memorable CCI experiences at conferences. The authors conducted 26 in-depth in-person interviews with past association conference attendees. Data analysis reveals attendees’ peak experiences in CCIs, comprising emotion-laden CCIssparks in CCIs, and surprises in CCIs. The results also demonstrate memorable deviant behaviors displayed by three types of Attendee B in CCIs, as well as other interpersonal factors that lead to negative, memorable CCIs, including social exclusioninterpersonal stress, and interpersonal conflict. The findings of this study challenge the conventional label of conferences merely as a social phenomenon and highlight the emotional and psychological meaning-making processes that take place at conferences. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.

Key words: Customer–customer interactions (CCIs); Memorable experiences; Peak experiences; Emotions; Conferences

Address correspondence to Wei Wei, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Hospitality Services Department, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Office 284C, 9907 Universal Blvd., Orlando, FL 32819, USA. Tel: 407-903-8230; Fax: 407-903-8105; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 21, pp. 789–794
1525-9951/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15073047237278
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note

Will Volunteers in a Youth Sports Event Become Paying Visitors?

Renuka Mahadevan* and Carina Ren†

*School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
†Department of Culture and Global Studies, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark

This article explores possible factors that influence the willingness of volunteers to reattend as paying visitors. Using the 2016 Arctic Winter Games in Greenland as a case study, it was found that 47% of the volunteers were willing to reattend as paying visitors; some self-related benefits and broad social benefits influenced that decision. For instance, the strong sense that the event has educational value and showcased the arctic region for tourism were important considerations for volunteers becoming paying guests. Although age nor gender of the volunteers was a factor, those who were better educated and had greater satisfaction from volunteering were likely to pay to attend. These findings highlight the need for a theoretical framework to further examine these issues. Future research using a mixed-methods approach can also help to understand more holistically what volunteers value and how their experience shapes the need for different experiences.

Key words: Arctic winter games; Willingness to pay; Benefits; Volunteer’s intention; Binary regression

Address correspondence to Renuka Mahadevan, Associate Professor, School of Economics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. Tel: +617-3365-6595; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it