Tourism Culture & Communication 17(4) Abstracts

Return to Tourism Culture & Communication>

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 231-248
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
15072926259360
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Travel Career Patterns: The Motivations of Indonesian and Malaysian Muslim Tourists

Hera Oktadiana,*† Philip L. Pearce,* Arif Kamisan Pusiran,‡ and Manisha Agarwal§

*College of Business Law and Governance, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
†Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia
‡Faculty of Business, Economics & Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia
§Strategic Planning and Review, James Cook University Australia, Singapore

Indonesia and Malaysia have a combined population of ~225 million Muslims. Little academic work has been conducted on their motives for nonpilgrimage, leisure-based travel. Building on the travel career pattern approach for assessing tourist motivation, this study sought to uncover the motivational patterns of Muslim tourists in this part of Southeast Asia. A combined total of 356 respondents from the two countries were sampled and the patterns of tourist motives between these Muslim tourists and data from previous studies of Western tourists were compared. Comparisons between the Malaysian data and the Indonesian data were also undertaken. The special importance of relationships, nature appreciation, and safety in the Muslim data compared to responses from Western respondents was identified. Close parallels between the Malaysian and Indonesian Muslim motivation patterns were found. The results were interpreted as highly consistent with Islamic teaching and the collectivist culture of the two communities.

Key words: Travel career patterns; Tourist motivation; Muslim tourists; Indonesia; Malaysia

Address correspondence to Hera Oktadiana, Ph.D., CHE, Visiting Scholar, College of Business Law and Governance, James Cook University, 1 James Cook Drive, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia. Tel: +61 747814190; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 249-257
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
15072926259388
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Land, Family, and Chinese-Ness: The Influence of Chinese Values on the Study of Tourism

Yunzi Zhang* and Liping Cai

*Business Department, The Northern Marianas College, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands
†School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

China has become a major world destination and tourist-generating country. Despite flourishing literature on Chinese tourism, the analysis of China’s society and value has not become an integral part of the research body. By reviewing the works of Liang Shuming and Fei Xiaotong, two great Chinese intellectuals, on the origin and constitution of the Chinese value system, this article aims to provide implications for Chinese tourism research based on their insights. The article posits that applying the indigenous culture in understanding a tourist population or destination is essential in pushing the boundaries of tourism research, particularly in this globalized environment with the diffusion of values in multilateral directions. In connecting the case of China to the study of tourists from emerging regions, the article questions the complete appropriation of the “emerging market” concept into tourism research. It argues that the term suggests a comparative notion that demeans the nature of a civilization that is non-Western. It calls for research approaches that are indiscriminate and true to the community of interest.

Key words: Chinese outbound tourists; Chinese values; Cross-cultural

Address correspondence to Yunzi Zhang, Assistant Professor, Business Department, The Northern Marianas College, P.O. Box 501250, Saipan, MP 96950, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 259-270
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
15072926259397
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourists’ Attitudes Toward Religious Commercialization

Keji Huang,* Philip Pearce,† and Junjie Wen‡

*School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangdong, P.R. China
†College of Business, Law and Governance, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
‡School of Tourism Management, Sichuan University, Sichuan, P.R. China

Commercial activities exist at different religious sites and the practices arouse global concern. This study identifies and assesses religious commercial activities and explores how they affect tourists’ attitudes. The well-known Four Great Buddhist Mountains in China were selected as research sites. Using grounded theory, this study initially conducted 80 detailed interviews to build an understanding of commercialization and then investigated 438 travel blogs. The resulting seven commercial categories were: entrance ticket, food and drinks, accommodation, transportation, shopping, staff service, and entertainment. In addition, the level of different commercial categories for all research sites were assessed. The findings showed that tourists had more negative comments about food and drinks, accommodation, and staff service, with less criticism of transportation and entertainment. It implied that tourists were more likely to feel annoyed when tourism products have ambiguous or exaggerated prices and there is a lack of uniform service standards. The research findings offer insights for sustainable development of religious tourism aiming to benefit both local communities and tourists.

Key words: Religious tourism; Commercial behavior; Tourists’ attitude; Buddhist sites; Great Buddhist Mountains

Address correspondence to Keji Huang, Research Fellow in School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-Sen University, Room 421, Tangqi Road, Xiangzhou District, Zhuhai, Guangdong, P.R. China, 519082. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 271-287
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
15072926259405
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism as a Perpetuator of Harmful Traditional Practices in Ethiopia’s Hamer Community

Ermias Kifle* and Azmach Tensay

*School of Wildlife and Ecotourism, Hawassa University, Awassa, Ethiopia
†School of Forestry, Hawassa University, Awassa, Ethiopia

The main objective of this research is to examine whether tourism is a key factor for the presence and continuation of harmful traditional practices (HTP) in the Hamer community in Ethiopia. Structural interviews survey with local people, informant in-depth interviews, and focus group discussion were used for data collection. Both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques were used for this research. The finding shows that out of the three most prevalent HTP, whipping of women was found to be directly influenced by tourism. Local peoples, local government, local associations, and private hospitality and tourism sectors have gained economic benefit from tourism. The majority of local people (90%) practice bull jumping and evangadi dance primarily for non-tourism-related purposes; 67.5% of local people believe that tourists would visit their village in the absence of bull jumping and evangadi dance. Informant and deductive analysis shows tourism is a factor for the continuation and practice of whipping in the Hamer community.

Key words: Tourism; Harmful traditional practice (HTP); Hamer community; Impact

Address correspondence to Ermias Kifle Gedecho at his current address: Lecturer, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, Kotebe Metropolitan University, P.Box 31248, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 17, pp. 289-297
1098-304X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X
15072926259414
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Role of Tour Operators and Suppliers in the Resident–Visitor Relationship: Chinese Mass Tourism in East Malaysia

Robert Francis Peters

Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

In tourism, local residents and foreign visitors do sometimes patronize the same hosts (e.g., service providers). Conflict between a resident and a visitor is organic and unavoidable at any tourism destination. Although there is a huge literature about this conflict, the process that is involved in the development or resolution of the conflict has not been described adequately. Documenting the process could provide an understanding of the role and importance of hospitality to a relationship between two different groups of people. To document the resident–visitor relationship, a case study on the development of mass tourism at Kota Kinabalu was carried out through a combination of communication media investigative methods to uncover social processes associated with hospitality. The findings showed that new or amateur tourism operators began supporting mass tourism by misappropriating local culture and traditions in the beginning of mass tourism. This misappropriation affected hospitality, leading to a resource competition between a resident and a visitor. This competition eventually evolved into a conflict. Furthermore, the findings showed that tourism suppliers are tasked to address and resolve the conflict between the residents and the visitors, and they do this by introducing a different form of hospitality. As a result, the resident–visitor relationship is changed. Hence, hospitality is a decisive relationship factor and its absence qualifies tourism being for the masses.

Key words: Interculture; Guest; Host; Hospitality

Address correspondence to Robert Francis Peters, Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Locked Bag No 2073, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it