Tourism in Marine Environments 12(3-4) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, pp. 139-153
1544-273X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X
15082979211038
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Field Takes Stock: Papers From the 8th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism

Marc L. Miller,* Jan Auyong,† Brian W. Szuster,‡ Mark D. Needham,§ Mark B. Orams,¶ Jeff Wilks,# and Michael Luck**

*School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
†Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
‡Department of Geography, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
§Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
¶School of Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
#Griffith Health Institute for the Development of Education and Scholarship, Griffith University, Logan Campus, QLD, Australia
**School of Hospitality and Tourism, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

Humans are transforming the coastal and marine tourism environment at an ever-increasing rate. Concurrently, the multiple amenities and natural resources of coastal zones and the reality of population growth contribute to omnipresent tourism user conflicts. This results in social, wicked, and super wicked problems that are value infused, difficult to frame, and seemingly intractable. In response, scientists and other experts are encouraged to engage in use-inspired research. Further, they are advised to reconsider the basic applied science dichotomy and to make policy contributions in the role of the honest broker. Articles from the 8th International Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism are introduced that deal with tsunami vulnerability (Thailand), wreck diving (Australia/Micronesia), national forest planning (Gulf of Alaska), cruise industry research, aquatic safety (Australia), surfing expansion (South Africa), stakeholder relations (Zanzibar, Tanzania), and kiteboarding (the Netherlands).

Key words: Anthropocene; Honest broker; Human dimensions research; Social problems; Use-inspired basic research; Values; Wicked problems

Address correspondence to Marc L. Miller, School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, University of Washington, 3707 Brooklyn Ave. NE, Seattle, WA 98105-6715, USA. Tel: +1 206 543 0113; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, pp. 155-167
1544-273X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X
15022384101333
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tsunami Disaster Risk and Vulnerability in Coastal Tourism Community: The Case of Khao Lak Area, Thailand

Somrudee Meprasert Jitpraphai,* Narumon Arunotai,† and Ajira Tiangtrong

*Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
†Social Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
‡Southeast Asia START Regional Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Over the past 20 years, Khao Lak coastal areas in Thailand Phang-nga province developed into popular tourism sites, but tourism levels were down for a couple of years after the destructive 2004 tsunami disaster. The Khao Lak area was selected as a case study to develop adaptive guidelines to assess coastal community risk and vulnerability in an attempt to mitigate future tsunami impact and other coastal hazards. In this article, vulnerability analysis is based on both physical features and the socio/cultural/economic dimensions. Recommendations to reduce vulnerability and increase local resilience include, but are not limited to, the use of integrated coastal management (ICM) principles and positive socioeconomic enforcement in coastal development planning.

Key words: Coastal tourism; Tsunami; Coastal hazards; Vulnerability assessment; Integrated coastal management

Address correspondence to Somrudee Meprasert Jitpraphai, Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330 Thailand. Tel: 662 218 5394; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it  or This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, pp. 169-182
1544-273X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X
15016348972686
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Human Dimensions of Wreck Diving and Management: Case Studies From Australia and Micronesia

Joanne Edney

School of Environment, Science & Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia

Shipwrecks have become popular attractions for recreational scuba divers. This interest has seen increased levels of visitation and has resulted in higher levels of diver impacts at these sites. Understanding the characteristics of the divers’ visiting these sites, their motivations, preferences, and attitudes to management controls can assist managers in developing more effective and sustainable management strategies to mitigate diver impacts. However, until recently little was known about wreck divers. This article compiles and analyzes the findings of two recent studies of wreck divers in Australia and Micronesia, discusses their implications to shipwreck management, and makes recommendations about application of this information in management strategies aimed at balancing the protection of sites with visitation by divers.

Key words: Scuba diving; Wreck diving; Management; Shipwrecks; Diver attitudes

Address correspondence to Joanne Edney, PO Box 157, East Lismore NSW 2480, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, pp. 183-197
1544-273X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X
15046521782302
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Social and Environmental Sustainability in Large-Scale Coastal Zones: Taking an Issue-Based Approach to the Implementation of the Prince William Sound Sustainable Human Use Framework

Dale J. Blahna,* Aaron Poe,† Courtney Brown,‡ Clare M. Ryan,§ and H. Randy Gimblett

*US Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Seattle, WA, USA
†US Fish & Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK, USA
‡US Fish & Wildlife Service, Kihei, HI, USA
§School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
¶School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Following the grounding of the Exxon Valdez in 1989, a sustainable human use framework (human use framework) for Prince William Sound (PWS), AK was developed by the Chugach National Forest after concerns emerged about the social and environmental impacts of expanding human use due to cleanup activities and increased recreation visitation. A practical, issue-based process was used to develop an implementation strategy for integrating the complex social and ecological data contained in the human use framework and for making specific management and monitoring recommendations. The issue-based process is more of a bottom-up approach to planning compared to typical top-down planning approaches that seek to impose or replicate system-wide environmental conditions as criteria for selecting management and monitoring practices. The implementation strategy includes management guidance for protecting “keystone” recreation experiences while simultaneously protecting social and ecological values of PWS. It also includes practical social and ecological monitoring recommendations that can be used to inform an adaptive management strategy for continued management of sustainable human uses. The issue-based process serves as a model for other coastal zone areas struggling to balance increasing human use and recreation with conservation and environmental protection goals.

Key words: Tourism; Conservation planning; Commercial use allocation strategies; Recreation use zoning strategies; Partnerships; Socioecological systems; Keystone experiences

Address correspondence to Dale J. Blahna, US Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station 400 N. 34th St., Suite 201, Seattle, WA 98103, USA. Tel: 206-732-7833; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, pp. 199-209
1544-273X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X
15022384101324
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Adrift at Sea: The State of Research on Cruise Tourism and the International Cruise Industry

Ross A. Klein

School of Social Work, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada

Research on cruise tourism and the cruise industry is relatively recent given the “newness” of the cruise industry—it has been only 35 years since Carnival Corporation introduced its first purpose-built cruise ship. The number of publications has been until recently relatively small and has fallen into two distinct categories. The overwhelming majority of published work is “performative” (technical or practical) in nature; only a small number are “emancipatory.” The article looks at the state of cruise research and considers factors that have influenced the growth in, and nature of, cruise research, including the two streams. Looking to the future, it foresees cruise research emerging as a distinct discipline within the academy, and makes recommendations that facilitate this.

Key words: Cruise industry; Cruise tourism; Cruise research; Cruise line international association

Address correspondence to Ross A. Klein, School of Social Work, St. John’s College, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL A1C 5S7 Canada. Tel: +1 708-864-8147; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, pp. 211-219
1544-273X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X
15016348972677
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism and Aquatic safety: No Lifeguard on Duty—Swim at Your Own Risk

Jeff Wilks

Griffith Health Institute for the Development of Education and Scholarship, Griffith University, Logan Campus, QLD, Australia

The law requires a tourism operator to undertake due diligence in relation to reasonably foreseeable risks. In the marine environment it is now well established that international tourists are a particular “at risk” group for drowning and near drowning events due to factors such as poor swimming ability, unfamiliarity with aquatic environments and marine recreational activities, language, possible alcohol and drug use, and general disorientation. The employment of lifeguards is increasingly recognized as an appropriate risk management and quality service response, as other popular injury prevention initiatives may not be as successful with tourists. This article examines the law and practice relating to the supply of lifeguards in tourist settings, suggesting that quality customer service has moved beyond reliance on static safety signage.

Key words: Lifeguards; Tourism; Legal responsibilities; Risk management; Water safety

Address correspondence to Jeff Wilks, Griffith Health IDEAS, Griffith University, 68 University Drive, Meadowbrook, QLD 4131 Australia. Tel +61 7 3382 1316; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, pp. 221-228
1544-273X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X
15062902755932
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

From Fringe to Core: Contemplating Surfing’s Potential Contribution to Sustainable Tourism Development in South Africa

Jacques D. Mahler-Coetzee

Faculty of Law, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa

Surfing has undergone a shift from a 20th century fringe activity to a core mainstream pursuit in the new millennium. This is evident from the contrast between surfing’s sociohistorical peripheral location with a) the now global scope of the practice of surfing itself, and b) its integration as a meaningful construct for nonsurfing society. The current societally integrated location, nature, and scope of surfing (the “new surfing”) is examined through selected African policy and civil society examples. These examples expose an apparent emerging benefit of surfing’s expansion into mainstream society being the propagation of an attractive ecosocial surf ethos. It is submitted that this inherited surf ethos can usefully inform policy and related challenges in sustainable surf tourism development.

Key words: New surfing; Surf ethos; Sustainable development; Delict (tort)

Address correspondence to Jacques D. Mahler-Coetzee, Faculty of Law, Nelson Mandela University, PO Box 684, Gonubie, 5256, East London, South Africa. Tel: +27(0)846163286; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, pp. 239-252
1544-273X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X
15022384101342
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Impact of Stakeholder Relations on the Mnemba Island Marine Conservation Area, Zanzibar, Tanzania

Christopher Burgoyne,* Clare Kelso,* and Kevin Mearns†

*Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
†Department of Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa

Tourism has the potential to be used as a positive tool for growth in developing nations. In order to gain the most benefit from tourism, planning and management is vital for successful tourism destination development and the attainment of conservation goals. This process should involve all stakeholders who might be affected by tourism and associated developments. In order for collaboration to be effective, there are certain social aspects that need to exist in stakeholder relationships such as open communication, transparency, and trust. Research has shown that these social variables are vital for the successful collaborative management of natural resources, and as such are important to the health of social and ecological systems upon which the future of tourism depends. This article investigates stakeholder relations and how these have influenced the Mnemba Island Marine Conservation Area in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Findings suggest a lack of structure in the working relationships of key stakeholders. As a result, these relationships are strained. Despite the importance of formal agreements and structured relations, these have been difficult to implement due to stakeholder conflict over resource control. Social variables (e.g., trust, transparency) shaping stakeholder relations had a largely negative impact on the health of social and ecological systems. Suggestions for a more detailed investigation into the complexities, challenges, and possibilities for stakeholder working relationships in the Mnemba Island Marine Conservation Area are provided.

Key words: Stakeholders; Collaboration; Coastal tourism; Marine conservation; Marine protected areas

Address correspondence to Christopher Burgoyne, Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, Kingsway Road, Rossmore, Johannesburg, 2001, South Africa. Tel: +27720618195; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 12, No. 3-4, pp. 239-252
1544-273X/17 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X
15035483323423
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2017 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Insights for Coastal Destination Development: The Practices of Kiteboarders in the Netherlands

Timo Derriks

Research Centre for Coastal Tourism, HZ University of Applied Sciences, Vlissingen, Netherlands

Soft adventure is a popular tourism niche that northwest coastal destinations in Europe, such as the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands, are increasingly targeting. Many of these cold-water coastal destinations are struggling with strategies and policies that could maintain or increase their market share, often through the improvement of coastal products and image of the destination. One water sport that has gained enormous popularity in the last decade is kiteboarding. The practices of kiteboarders, which are informed by practice theory and conceptualized by the kiteboarding session, are studied through multiple methods. The research findings led to practical recommendations for deliberate interventions that support coastal destination policies targeting this niche.

Key words: Destination image enhancement; Coastal product improvement; Kiteboarding; Kiteboarding session; Practice theory

Address correspondence to Timo Derriks, Research Centre for Coastal Tourism, HZ University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 364, 4380 AJ Vlissingen, Netherlands. Tel: +31 118-489 304; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it