Event Management 22(1) Abstracts

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Event Management, Vol. 22, pp. 9–23
1525-9951/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15111988553955
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Understanding Mega-Events Success and Customer Satisfaction

Eleni Michopoulou and Chiara Giuliano

University of Derby, Buxton, UK

The events industry is growing every year, the number of events is increasing, and their role in society is becoming more significant. Satisfied participants are the key to successful events and the main objective of event organizers. The aim of the article is to understand what costumers consider more important when attending mega-events. A quantitative survey design was adopted by deploying the American customer satisfaction index (ACSI) that included an event specific customer value package in the context of the EXPO Milan 2015 mega-event. Results demonstrate that expectations of visitors, staff, and volunteers vary considerably, and so do the levels of satisfaction. They also highlight that, alongside other customers’ priorities such as cleanliness and safety, capacity plays a role in determining satisfaction. This article presents the summarized findings of a broader study.

Key words: Satisfaction; Mega-events; Universal exposition; Capacity; Customer value package; Attributes; Survey

Address correspondence to Dr. Eleni (Elina) Michopoulou, Senior Lecturer in Business Management, HRSM, University of Derby, 1 Devonshire Road, Buxton SK17 6RY, UK. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 22, pp. 25–36
1525-9951/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15111988553964
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Against All Odds: Embedding New Knowledge for Event Continuity and Community Well-Being

Iride Azara, Peter Wiltshier, and Jamie Greatorex

University of Derby, Buxton, UK

Ashbourne Royal Shrovetide Football (ARSF) is a sporting event that occurs yearly on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday in the market town of Ashbourne, in Derbyshire. Sometimes referred to as “mob football,” Shrovetide can arguably be perceived as the quintessential sensorial and fully immersive event, being played out across town and involving the entire community. The event is also a unique tourism spectacle and a tool for tourism destination positioning. This article presents some of the results of a larger study that looks at challenges in the matter of events safety and the impacts that this has on event survival and the sustainable development of local communities. Findings highlight the need to support communities to learn from events in order to preserve them as they are essential for the maintenance of a unique and inimitable community identity.

Key words: Heritage; Sporting event; Community; Well-being; Experiences; Tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Iride Azara, Senior Lecturer in Tourism, University of Derby, 1 Devonshire Road, Buxton, SK17 6RY, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1332594646; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 22, pp. 37–47
1525-9951/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15111988553973
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Formulating Event Loyalty in Tourism: Lessons From the World Travel Market

Marietta Fragkogianni

Suffolk
Business School, University of Suffolk, Ipswich, UK

The literature extensively focuses on loyalty formulation, but event loyalty is scarcely researched despite the substantial contribution of events in tourism. This article examines the formulation of event loyalty at the World Travel Market (WTM) in London. Using a sample of 274 visitors, it evaluates the impact of performance, the social, educational, and emotional value, and the marketing activities of WTM on event loyalty formulation and development. Moreover, it examines event loyalty in terms of employment orientation of an audience characterized in direct relevance with the tourism domain. The findings reveal that the most important factor affecting event loyalty is marketing activities followed by event performance, although all constructs appear to impact visitor loyalty of the examined event. In addition, the employment orientation of visitors substantially influences all the examined constructs. Finally, the study discusses several managerial implications concerning the formulation and development of loyalty in travel and tourism-related events.

Key words: Event loyalty; Theory of planned behavior; Perceived value; Motivation marketing activities; World Travel Market London

Address correspondence to Marietta Fragkogianni, Lecturer in Marketing and Destination Development, Suffolk Business School, University of Suffolk, Waterfront Building, 19 Neptune Quay, Ipswich IP4 1QJ, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1473 338409;

E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 22, pp. 49–63
1525-9951/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15111988553991
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Engaging the Senses to Explore Community Events

Michelle Duffy* and Judith Mair†

*School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW, Australia
†Event Management in the UQ Business School, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Community events are often staged by local authorities as a way to boost the local economy, improve social cohesion, and foster a sense of belonging. However, although it is arguably comparatively straightforward to conceptualize how events may contribute in terms of economic impact, it is much more difficult to understand and assess how events can contribute to feelings of connectedness and belonging. To date the focus in the event management literature has been very strongly focused on what people think of events; this study instead draws our attention to what people do and how this may provide clues as to how they feel in terms of engagement. Recent studies in tourism, geography, and urban studies have started to explore the role the senses play in our engagement and participation in events. Turning to the senses as a means to explore our bodily engagement with an event provides an opportunity to examine inclusion and exclusion at an event from a new perspective. This article takes an interdisciplinary ethnographic approach to examine a case study of community and the Noosa Jazz Festival in Australia. Findings suggest that festivals, through their embodied participants, can facilitate feelings of inclusion in a community. Sound, vision, and the festival ambience emerged as being of key importance. The research demonstrates the benefits of interdisciplinary research, particularly drawing from sensual geographies, when exploring intangible constructs such as connectedness, inclusion, cohesion, and belonging.

Key words: Festivals; Community; Senses; Sensual geography; Belonging; Cohesion; Inclusio

Address correspondence to Michelle Duffy, Associate Professor, Human Geography, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Newcastle (UON), University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308, Australia. Tel: + 61 2 492 15097; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 22, pp. 65–78
1525-9951/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15111988554008
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Uncovering the Motives and Experiences of Locally Sourced Volunteers at Two Events in Metropolitan Perth, Western Australia


David Lamb and Alfred Ogle

School of Business and Law, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Perth, Western Australia

This study sought to venture beyond the scope of previous research by examining two 2016 events that incorporated elements of different event types. The material events—the ISPS Handa Perth International golf tournament and the Telstra Perth Fashion Festival—were large-scale events with international stature and appeal. Both of those events present concomitant event characteristics: the golf tournament could be labeled as a sporting event and a community event or even a corporate event, while the fashion festival could be deemed as a community event and also a form of cultural celebration or possibly a business event. Notwithstanding that the events are dissimilar in terms of function and goal, the authors assert that the common defining characteristic was that the event volunteer recruitment was geographically localized using local area bounded recruitment drives. Consequently, those events were almost exclusively supported by Perth residents who identified the events as community events because of their considerable contribution. This study sought the opinions and perspectives of the volunteers of the two events with a specific focus on volunteering motivation. This research is timely given the worrying trend of diminishing rates of event volunteering due to attrition in the volunteer base. The outcomes of this study will provide event managers involved in organizing community-based events, where the focus of recruitment is on local volunteers, with more in-depth knowledge about the diversity of motivational factors brought about by the inherent heterogeneity in the volunteer base. Furthermore, insight is gained on the volunteer decision-making process and the factors volunteers take into consideration in deciding to commit themselves to an event.

Key words: Community; Event; Volunteering; Motivation; Golf; Fashion

Address correspondence to David Lamb, Ph.D., Senior Academic, Edith Cowan University, School of Business and Law, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, Western Australia, 6026. Tel: +61 8 6304-2663; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 22, pp. 79–97
1525-9951/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15111988554017
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Rising to the Occasion: Experiential Learning Experiences of Event Management Students at a South African University of Technology

Esti Venske

Department of Tourism and Event Management, Business and Management Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa

Event management educators in South Africa are faced with the challenge of educating culturally diverse students for progressive workplaces in the business events sector of the tourism industry. This dynamic sector requires work-ready skilled practitioners at entry-level positions. In this regard, experiential learning (EL) plays an important role in bridging the gap between university theory and industry practice in vocationally oriented event management qualifications. This study explores how students experience EL as part of a formal event management qualification at a South African University of Technology (UoT). Following a qualitative approach, data for this study were collected by means of focus group discussions and key informant interviews with selected participants. Data were transcribed and analyzed by applying six steps of scientific qualitative data analysis. Thematic analysis identified four key themes that emerged, which highlighted student expectations of EL and student experiences during EL in the actual world of work. The findings indicate that students experience the need to be coached in the necessary soft skills required to be effective future event managers. The findings suggest that it is essential for academic and industry supervisors to develop mentorship strategies to close the knowing–doing gap in order to enhance student experiences. This article provides new insights on how event management students perceive the role of industry and academic supervision as part of a student-centered approach in EL.

Key words: Experiential learning (EL); Event management; Student experiences; Qualitative case study

Address correspondence to Esti Venske, Department of Tourism and Event Management, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, c/o Tennant Street and Keizersgracht Street, Zonnebloem, Cape Town, 8000, South Africa. Tel: +27 21 460 3518/3022; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Event Management, Vol. 22, pp. 99–110
1525-9951/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/152599517X15111988554026
E-ISSN 1943-4308
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Setting Them up to Fail: The Challenge of Employing Project-Based Learning Within a Higher Education Environment

Richard Keith Wright

Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, School of Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand

Project based learning (PBL) facilitators seek to establish long-term understanding by encouraging students to team up, take control of their own educational environments, and embrace the knowledge gained through personal experience. This article offers a new contextualized perspective to an already expansive body of academic knowledge, much of which has focused on the outcomes attached to PBL’s adoption in compulsory education environments. More specifically, this article addresses the unique challenges attached to facilitating PBL among a cohort of adult learners, many of whom enter the educational experience with an expectation that they will be provided with all the tools they need to succeed. An extensive review of the origins and effectiveness of PBL provides the platform for an unobtrusive summative content analysis employed to categorize 115 negative comments from sport and recreation students enrolled on to two different event management modules over a 3-year period (2014–2016). The critical comments were separated into two closely-related themes: “Challenge avoider” and “Disappointing surprise.” The findings and discussions are integrated to ensure that event management educators are aware of the personal and professional criticisms that they can expect to encounter because of embracing an unconventional constructivist-inspired PBL approach. The conclusions note the importance of managing the expectations of the consumer while maintaining their faith/trust in the value and validity of PBL. The recommendations identify the need to ensure that the long-term benefits of being exposed to PBL in a highly stressful educational environment will ultimately outweigh any initial backlash experienced.

Key words: Project-based learning (PBL); Event education; Challenge avoiders; Disappointing surprise

Address correspondence to Richard Keith Wright, Ph.D., Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, School of Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, AUT North Campus, 90 Akoranga Drive, Northcote, Auckland, 0627, New Zealand. Tel: +64 9 921 9999; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it