Tourism in Marine Environments 13(1) Abstracts

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Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 1-15
1544-273X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X14964473293699
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Seal Watching: An Investigation of Codes of Conduct

Elin Lilja Oqvist,* Sandra M. Granquist,*†‡ Georgette Leah Burns,§¶ and Anders Angerbjorn*

*Zoological Department, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
†The Icelandic Seal Center, Hvammstangi, Iceland
‡Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Reykjavik, Iceland
§Environmental Futures Research Institute, and Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia
¶Department of Rural Tourism, Holar University College, Holar, Iceland

Seal watching as a form of wildlife tourism is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Behavioral changes caused by the presence of tourists could lead to negative consequences for seal welfare and may affect reproduction and survival. Therefore, managing seal-watching activities to ensure future protection and conservation is important. Codes of conduct or guidelines for how to behave around animals are one way to regulate wildlife watching and are often easier and quicker to implement than laws. Codes explaining the consequences for wildlife if the code is not followed appeal to the moral obligation of tourists and thereby increase incentives to act appropriately. This study focused on analyzing the content of codes of conduct for seal watching. Codes of conduct (n = 33) accessible on the internet during the time of study were analyzed. Results show that in many areas where seal watching occurs there are no regulations or guidelines. The content and detail of the codes varied and the information was often insufficient to offer adequate protection of seals. Few of the codes were developed in cooperation with scientists or stated that the content was based on research. Further, a majority of the codes did not explain the consequences for wildlife if the code was not followed. More research on seals and the tourists watching them is needed to better understand the effects of tourism and how disturbance could be minimized. Meanwhile, developing an international code of conduct (with local additions) built on existing knowledge in the field could be one option to increase protection and ensure conservation of these animals. The results presented in this article could assist the development of such a code of conduct.

Key words: Tourism; Seals; Wildlife; Management; Codes of conduct; Conservation; Disturbance; Mammals

Address correspondence to Sandra Granquist, The Icelandic Seal Center, Brekkugata 2, 530 Hvammstangi, Iceland. Tel: +345-4512345; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 17-24
1544-273X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X14964473293707
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Development and Value of Whale-Watch Tourism in the West of Scotland

Conor Ryan, Vivi Bolin, Laura Shirra, Pippa Garrard, Jane Putsey, Juliet Vines, and Lauren Hartny-Mills

Hebridean Whale and Dolphin Trust, Tobermory, Isle of Mull, Scotland

In 2008, Scotland was estimated to have one of the highest proportion of whale-watching tourists of any European country, providing important economic benefits to rural coastal communities. Since then, information has been lacking on how the industry is developing. Because whale watching is not regulated or licensed, basic information on the number of operators and capacity of the industry is difficult to obtain. Wildlife tour operators (N = 77) were identified in the west of Scotland using internet searches and categorized as “whale-watch operators” where 66%–100% of income was derived from using the opportunity of encountering cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) to market tours (N = 40). Questionnaires were circulated to 35 whale-watch operators with responses received from 22. It was estimated that 72 full-time equivalent jobs exist in the sector in the study area. Over half of the operators (54%) have been conducting whale watching for greater than 10 years, suggesting it can be a reliable source of employment. Inclement weather followed by the number of tourists were cited, respectively, as the greatest challenges for operators. Almost half of respondents (46%) said that the amount of wildlife was not a challenge, with minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) being the main target species. In 2015 an estimated 51,200 people went whale watching on boats in the west of Scotland, generating an estimated £2.3 million and £3.7 million of direct and indirect revenue, respectively. Since 2000, the number of whale-watching passengers declined by 17.3%. In the same period, revenue generated by the industry declined by 1.4% per annum. Although whale watching remains unregulated, the current lack of growth presents an opportunity to foster an environmentally and economically sustainable model for the industry in the west of Scotland.

Key words: Sustainability; Coastal communities; Peripheral; Whales; Dolphins; Porpoises

Address correspondence to Conor Ryan, 50 Main Street, Tobermory, Isle of Mull, PA75 6NT, Scotland. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 25-40
1544-273X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X15018194204029
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Emerging Ocean Industries: Implications for Sustainable Tourism Development

Larry Dwyer

Griffith Institute for Tourism (GIFT), Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics, Ljubljana, Slovenia
School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Pressures on the ocean’s natural assets inevitably will increase in the coming years as world population growth, economic growth, and increased international trade generate increasing demands for marine sources of food, energy, minerals, and leisure pursuits. This article explores the consequences for coastal and marine tourism resulting both from its own growth and from the growth in the other established and emerging ocean industries. It estimates the present and future economic value of the world’s ocean industries and the contribution of the tourism industry in particular, identifying the drivers of growth in ocean industries including tourism. Several types of challenges to the sustainable development of coastal and marine tourism, shared in common with other ocean industries, are identified. The article concludes with a discussion of strategies to minimize the adverse impacts of growth so that tourism and other ocean industries can develop in more sustainable ways.

Key words: Ocean industries; Sustainable tourism; Integrated ocean management;

Governance

Address correspondence to Larry Dwyer, Griffith Institute for Tourism (GIFT), Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Tel: +61 2 9385 2636; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 41-51
1544-273X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427317X14964473293680
E-ISSN 2169-0197
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Review

Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2016–20171

E. C. M. Parsons and D. M. Brown

Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA

Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and fields of study, from monitoring the biological impacts of whale-watching activities on cetaceans and assessments of the effectiveness of whale-watching management and regulations, to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching. This article is the latest in a series of annual digests, which describes the variety and findings of whale-watching studies published over the past year (June 2016–May 2017).

Key words: Whale watching; Impacts; Code of conduct; Regulations; Compliance; Management; Whale watchers; Education; Human dimensions; Dolphin provisioning; Marine protected area

1This article is dedicated to the memory of Carole A. Carlson. Carole was a staunch advocate of sustainable and responsible whale watching, and an inspiring leader in the IWC Scientific Committee Whale-Watching Subcommittee for over two decades, as well as being a great friend. She will be sadly missed.
Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it