Tourism Analysis 23(1) Abstracts

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Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 1-15
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15143857349459
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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Does Verifying Uses Influence Rankings? Analyzing Booking.Com and Tripadvisor

Eva Martin-Fuentes,* Carles Mateu,† and Cesar Fernandez†

*Department of Business Administration, University of Lleida. Lleida, Spain
†INSPIRES Research Institut, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain

Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) is of recent and considerable importance in tourism, particularly because of the intangible nature of the industry. Users’ online reviews are a source of information for other consumers, who take them into account before making a reservation at a lodging property. The aim of this study is to establish whether or not the anonymity of the reviews on TripAdvisor alters hotel rankings by comparing them with verified users’ reviews on Booking.com. Moreover, the study analyzes whether or not the differences in the rating scales of both websites favor some hotels over others. A large amount of data is used in this study, with more than 40,000 hotels on Booking.com and 70,000 on TripAdvisor in 447 cities around the world, comparing the rankings of about 20,000 hotels matched on both websites. Our findings suggest that the behavior of both rankings is similar and the lack of veracity on TripAdvisor due to the anonymity in the user’s verification system is baseless. In addition, some differences are found depending on the hotel category and region, due mainly to the unique rating scale on Booking.com (from 2.5 to 10) compared with the rating scale on TripAdvisor (from 1 to 5).

Key words: Electronic word of mouth (eWOM); TripAdvisor; Booking.com; Ranking; Rating scale

Address correspondence to Eva Martin-Fuentes, Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, University of Lleida, C/ Jaume II, 73, 25001 Lleida, Spain. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
Vol. 23, pp. 17-29
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15143857349468
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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The Causal Nexus Between International Tourism and Economic Development

Tsung-Pao Wu* and Hung-Che Wu†

*School of Accounting and Finance, Beijing Institute of Technology, Zhuhai, Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province, China
†Business School, Nanfang College of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China

A bootstrap panel Granger causality test is applied to examine the causal relationship between international tourism receipts and economic growth in China’s 12 western regions for the period from 1995 to 2015, accounting for both dependency and heterogeneity across regions. The empirical results of this study support evidence for the growth hypothesis in the regions, such as Guangxi, Tibet, and Shaanxi. A reverse relationship supports evidence on the conservation hypothesis for the regions, such as Chognqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, and Yunnan. A reciprocal causal relationship was found in Guangxi and Tibet, whereas the result of a neutrality hypothesis supported 5 of these 12 western regions (i.e., Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, and Xinjiang). The empirical findings of this study provide important policy implications for China’s 12 western regions.

Key words: International tourism receipts; Economic growth; China’s western regions; Dependency and heterogeneity; Bootstrap panel Granger causality test

Address correspondence to Hung-Che Wu, Ph.D., Business School, Nanfang College of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 882 Wenquan Road, Wenquan Town, Conghua City, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China 510970. Tel: + (86) 13533567158; Fax: + (86) 2061787368; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 31-43
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15143857349477
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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Investigating Air Passengers’ Acceptance Level of Unruly In-Flight Behavior

Steven Tsang, Lorenzo Masiero, and Markus Schuckert

School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR

Service quality is an important issue for airlines. However, incidents of unruly passenger behavior (UPB) are increasing. Such incidents may have a negative impact on passengers’ evaluation of the overall service quality of an airline, making the maintenance of airline standards difficult. This study investigates the relationship between acceptability of in-flight UPBs and traveler profile. Results show that aggression and violence are the most unacceptable forms of UPB. Educational and cultural background, purpose of travel, travel frequency, and flight duration are the main factors influencing participants’ acceptance of UPB. This study provides information on the acceptability of different forms of UPB and the impact of different passenger characteristics. The study closes with the recommendations to airlines for dealing with UPB.

Key words: Unruly passenger; Air travel; Transportation; Cabin safety; Travel experience

Address correspondence to Dr. Lorenzo Masiero, School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 17 Science Museum Road, TST-East, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR. Tel: (852) 3400 2179; Fax: (852) 2362 9362; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 45-60
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15143857349486
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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Satisfaction as a Bridge to Loyalty in a Tourist Destination

Tan Vo Thanh,* Thi Ai Cam Tran,† and Rey Dang‡

*Marketing Department, La Rochelle Business School–CEREGE, La Rochelle, France
†Business Administration Department, University of Nha Trang, Nha Trang, Vietnam
‡Finance, Audit, Accounting, and Control Department, ICN Business School Nancy-Metz, Nancy, France

This study examines the mediating role of satisfaction between destination image and destination loyalty, and novelty seeking and destination loyalty. The research model is developed on the basis of previous studies in the fields of marketing and tourism. A structural equation model tests data collected from international tourists who visited Nha Trang, Vietnam. The results indicate that four dimensions of cognitive image (culture and social, environment, infrastructure and accessibility, and local food), affective image, and novelty seeking are the important and direct antecedents of satisfaction and destination loyalty, and that satisfaction mediates the relationships among destination image, novelty seeking, and destination loyalty. Theoretical and managerial implications are drawn based on the study’s findings, and recommendations for further research are made.

Key words: Cognitive image; Affective image; Novelty seeking; Satisfaction; Destination loyalty

Address correspondence to Tan Vo Thanh, Marketing Department, La Rochelle Business School–CEREGE, 102, Rue de Coureilles, 17024 La Rochelle–Cedex 1, France. Tel: +33 5 46 51 77 00; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
Vol. 23, pp. 61-76
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15143857349495
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Temporal Tourism Booking Decisions and the Effect of Message and Goal Framing

Arifur Rahman,* Geoffrey I. Crouch,* and Irwin P. Levin†

*Department of Management and Marketing, College of Arts, Social Sciences and Commerce, La Trobe Business School, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
†Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA

Travelers are often faced with a booking dilemma—to book early or to wait until the last minute. Two studies were undertaken to examine how different ways of framing the booking options can affect choice. Message framing was used in Study 1 and goal framing in Study 2. Study 1 participants were given the choice of a trade-off between a cheap but possibly inconvenient early bird fare and an expensive but more convenient later fare; involvement was included as a potential moderator. Study 2 participants were given the option of a rebate for early booking; the moderator was approach/avoidance motivation. Participants in both studies were more apt to choose the early bird option in the negative framing condition that described the negative consequences of not booking early, compared to the positive framing condition that described the positive consequences of booking early. The moderators made little difference. These findings enhance our understanding of framing effects in tourism contexts and so contribute to both marketing theory and tourism marketing practice.

Key words: Prospect theory; Framing; Booking; Message framing; Goal framing; Temporal effects

Address correspondence to Arifur Rahman, Sessional Academic, College of Arts, Social Sciences and Commerce, La Trobe Business School, Department of Management and Marketing, David Myers East Building, Room 322, Melbourne (Bundoora), VIC 3086, Australia. Tel: +61 3 9479 6074; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
Vol. 23, pp. 77-91
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15143857349503
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Promoting Site-Specific Versus General Proenvironmental Behavioral Intentions: The Role of Interpretation

Aise Kyoungjin Kim* and Alexandra Coghlan

*School of Management, University of South Australia, City West Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
†Department of Tourism, Sport and Hotel Management, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Southport, QLD, Australia

With the growing emphasis on sustainable tourism, visitor management practices such as interpretation have played an important role in achieving the multiple goals of tourism—both enhancing tourist satisfaction and fostering proenvironmental behavior. Yet previous research reveals contradictory results of interpretation effectiveness on environmental conservation outcomes. This study attempts to explain some of those contradictions by separating out general from site-specific proenvironmental behavioral intentions. This study also offers a conceptual and methodological basis for distinguishing interrelationships between interpretation and three antecedents of proenvironmental behavior, including specific environmental attitude, tourist satisfaction, and two types of behavioral intentions. Self-completed surveys were used at an Australian iconic nature-based attraction, the Great Barrier Reef. The findings highlight that interpretation has both a direct and an indirect relationship (through the mediating factors of visitor satisfaction and environmental attitude) to proenvironmental behavioral intentions. Furthermore, interpretation is more likely to be associated with site-specific proenvironmental behaviors than general ones. The results have implications for the use of interpretation as a visitor management strategy, for behavioral change in environmental practices, and for tourist experience enhancement.

Key words: Interpretation; Proenvironmental behavioral intentions; Visitor satisfaction; Environmental attitude; Visitor management strategy

Address correspondence to Aise KyoungJin Kim, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Tourism Management, School of Management, University of South Australia, City West Campus, North Terrace GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia 5001, Australia. Tel: +61 88302 0444; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
Vol. 23, pp. 93-107
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15143857349800
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
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Destination Brand Promise: The Core of Customer-Based Brand Equity Modeling

Tatiana Chekalina, Matthias Fuchs, and Maria Lexhagen

European Tourism Research Institute (ETOUR), Department of Tourism Studies and Geography, Mid Sweden University, Ostersund, Sweden

The present study contributes to the discussion on transferring the concept of customer-based brand equity (CBBE) to a tourism destination context. The core component of the proposed CBBE model for tourism destinations (CBDBE) considers customers’ evaluation of the destination promise in terms of the transformation of destination resources into value-in-use for tourists. The introduced CBDBE model consists of six interdependent constructs, including awareness, tourists’ perception of functional, tangible and social destination resources, value-in-use disclosing the purpose and benefits of consumption, value-for-money, satisfaction and loyalty. The model was tested for the leading Swedish mountain destination Are for the summer season by using customer-based survey data and a linear structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Findings confirm the hypothesized relationships and the hierarchical structure of the proposed model. Managerial implications are discussed and the agenda for future CBDBE research is outlined.

Key words: Destination branding; Customer-based brand equity model (CBBE); Brand promise; Value-in-use; Value cocreation; Structural equation modeling (SEM)

Address correspondence to Matthias Fuchs, The European Tourism Research Institute (ETOUR), Department of Tourism Studies and Geography, Mid-Sweden University, Kunskapens Vag 1 SE-83125 Ostersund, Sweden. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
Vol. 23, pp. 109-121
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15143857349819
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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Facilitating Adolescent Identity Development Through Sister Cities International

Garrett A. Stone, Lauren N. Duffy, Hunter Holland, and Edmond P. Bowers

Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA

In this article, the authors qualitatively investigate the travel experiences of adolescents from the southeast US who engaged in an 11-day Sister City International exchange program in Northern Ireland that is characterized by a mix of service-, civic-, and tourism-based activities. Situated within the theoretical frameworks of identity development theory and rites of passage, the authors explore identity development among adolescents as a result of participation in the exchange program. Findings indicate that participants engaged in processes of identity exploration and commitment, marked by identity-related motivations, an acknowledgment of normative behaviors, greater appreciation for their national and cross-cultural identities, and a desire to integrate travel into their lives. Significant life events, such as travel experiences, may create liminoid spaces, which can initiate positive identity development when reinforced by peer support, positive and immersive engagement with host communities, and meaningful service.

Key words: Identity development; Liminality; Travel and tourism; Adolescence; Sister Cities International

Address correspondence to Garrett A. Stone, M.S., Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management, 137 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 123-135
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15143857349828
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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Tourism and Economic Growth: A Worldwide Study

Wiston Adrian Risso

Instituto de Economia (IECON), Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay

This article analyzes the relationship between tourism and economic growth for a worldwide dataset of 179 countries during 1995–2016. Applying a panel data Granger causality test, bidirectional causality is found, supporting the feedback hypothesis at a worldwide level. The results show that a 100% increase in number of arrivals, tourism receipts, and tourism expenditure increases per capita GDP by 9%, 7%, and 10%, respectively. In contrast, a 100% increase in real per capita GDP increases number of arrivals, receipts, and expenditure by 54%, 91%, and 101%, respectively. Control variables such as human capital and gross capital formation as a percentage of GDP play an important role in tourism and economic growth.

Key words: Tourism; Economic growth; Tourism-led growth hypothesis (TLGH); Panel data

Address correspondence to Wiston Adrian RissoInstituto de Economia (IECON), Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
Vol. 23, pp. 137-149
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15143857878697
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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The Gender Wage Gap in the Tourism Industry: Evidence From Australia

Michael A. Kortt ,* Elisabeth Sinnewe,† and Simon J. Pervan

*School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Coolangatta (QLD), Australia
†QUT Business School, Accountancy, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (QLD), Australia
‡Swinburne Business School, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (VIC), Australia

This article presents an examination of the gender wage gap among tourism and hospitality employees in Australia. Data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey—covering the period 2001 to 2014—are used to estimate earnings functions for prime age (25–54) male and female workers. Conventional human capital functions are estimated using a random-effects regression model. The principal findings suggest that, after controlling for an extensive range of sociodemographic characteristics, female tourism and hospitality employees, on average, earned 8.5% and 7.5%, respectively, less than their male counterparts. Although human capital variables like education and work experience play a role in the determination of wages, an employee’s gender still continues to be a significant factor in the wage received.

Key words: Earnings; Gender; Human capital; Tourism; Wages

Address correspondence to Michael Kortt, Associate Professor, School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University, Gold Coast Campus, Locked Bag 4, Coolangatta QLD 4255, Australia. Tel: 61-7-5589-3212; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
Vol. 23, pp. 151-158
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354218X
15143857349837
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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Research Note

Analyzing Cultural Saliency in Hedonistic Tourism Experiences Using Free Listing, Multidimensional Scaling, and Graphic Layout Algorithm

Nuno F. Ribeiro* and Garry E. Chick†

*Department of Recreation, Sport & Tourism, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA
†Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, Department of Anthropology, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, USA

In this study, comparisons were made between two related cultural domains pertaining to a hedonistic tourism experience (spring break) using free listing to elicit constituents of related cultural domains, both cognitive and behavioral. Data were analyzed using a variety of methods and visualized using multidimensional scaling and graphic layout algorithm. Conflicting evidence for both similarities and differences was found between the two cultural domains under study. Tentative conclusions were reached concerning the relationship between the two related cultural domains only through a combination of multiple methods of analysis. Findings validated free listing as an emic tool and reinforced the confirmatory value of complementary methodologies in tourism research.

Keywords: Free listing; Spring break; Culture; Behavior; Hedonism; Graphic layout algorithm

Address correspondence to Nuno F. Ribeiro, University of Illinois, 204S Huff Hall, 1206 South Fourth Street, Champaign, IL 61820, USA. Tel: 217-300-0336; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism AnalysisVol. 23, pp. 159-164
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15143857878714
E-ISSN 1943-3999
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Research Note

Air Quality and Inbound Tourism in China

Bo Zhou,* Hailin Qu,*† Xingqiang Du,‡ Bi Yang,* and Fei Liu*

*Department of Tourism and Hotel Administration, Management School, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, China
†School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration, College of Human Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
‡Department of Accounting, Management School, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, China

The issue of air quality in China has gotten great attention worldwide. This study makes the first effort to investigate the impact of air pollution on China’s inbound tourism, using panel data at city level and the technique of corrected least square dummy variable (CLSDV). This study demonstrates how air pollution in China adversely impacts inbound tourism demand as well as the lagged effect of air pollution. Furthermore, this study reveals that for cities with different degrees of air pollution, the impact differs. Accordingly, we provide suggestions for governments and tourism firms on how to respond to the air pollution concern of international tourists.

Key words: Air pollution; Inbound tourism demand; Dynamic panel data model; China

Address correspondence to Bo Zhou, Department of Tourism and Hotel Administration, Management School, Xiamen University, 422-25, South Siming Road, Xiamen City, Fujian Province, China, 361005. Tel: +86 592 2187916; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism Analysis
Vol. 23, pp. 165-170
1083-5423/18 $60.00 +.00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/108354217X
15143857878723
E-ISSN 1943-3999
Copyright ©2018 Cognizant, LLC.
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Research Note

How Young Tourists Are Motivated: The Role of Destination Personality

Jing (Bill) Xu and Pimtong Tavitiyaman

School of Professional Education and Executive Development, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong

This study explores the travel motivation and behavioral intention of Hong Kong’s young market towards Japan, as well as investigates the moderating effect of the destination personality of Japan. The results found that the travel intention of young Hong Kong tourists towards Japan is affected by motivation factors, such as Japanese foods, reputation, tourist attractions, escape, perceived value, and culture. Furthermore, destination personality in terms of “ruggedness” has a moderating effect on the relationship between motivation and behavioral intention. However, “success and upper class” and “sincerity” have no moderating effect on such relationship. This study draws some implications to support the effective marketing and positioning strategies for tourism in Japan.

Key words: Motivation; Destination personality; Behavioral intention; Young tourists; Japan; Hong Kong

Address correspondence to Jing (Bill) Xu, Ph.D., School of Professional Education and Executive Development, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, N1103k 11/F South Tower, West Kowloon Campus, 9 Hoi Ting Road, Yau Ma Tei, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Tel: 852-3746-0083; Fax: 852-2363-0540; E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it