Tourism Culture & Communication 18(1) Abstracts

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Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 18, pp. 9-20
1098-304X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X
15180180585149
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Female Tourism Entrepreneurs in Zanzibar: An Enactment Perspective

Nelly Maliva,* Maartje Bulkens,† Karin Peters,‡ and René Van Der Duim

*Department of Marketing, University of Dar-es-Salaam, Dar Es Salaam,Tanzania
†Sociology of Consumption and Households, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
‡Cultural Geography, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

Although gender has become an established research topic in tourism studies over the last decades, the role of religion in relation to women participating in tourism has been less explored. Moreover, gender has been mainly discussed from a Western perspective, while other viewpoints have received little attention. By focusing on women participating in the tourism industry in Zanzibar we make a contribution to both voids in tourism studies. This article provides an account of how Zanzibari women working in tourism are confronted with particular constraints brought about by the Islamization of Swahili culture. Moreover, it is argued that whereas women find themselves bound up by particular Islamic norms and values, they are able through the enactment of their environments to challenge, negotiate, and resist these. In so doing they create the freedom to make their own choices, which, as will be shown, reach beyond their labor position. The research findings are discussed in terms of the concept of enactment as proposed by Weick in 1995 and explore the ability of women to participate in the construction of their own environment. The article concludes by arguing that women enact their environments in diverse ways, and how these environments are understood by them as either constraining or enabling them in taking over agency over their lives.

Key words: Female tourism entrepreneurs; Gender; Zanzibar; Enactment; Weick

Address correspondence to V. R. van der Duim, Professor, Cultural Geography, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 18, pp. 21-34
1098-304X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X
15180180585158
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Women of the Kokoda: From Poverty to Empowerment in Sustainable Tourism Development

Carmel Foley, Simone Grabowski, Jennie Small, and Stephen Wearing

UTS Business School, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW, Australia

The purpose of this article is to explore the power dynamics negotiated by women in local communities in Papua New Guinea (PNG) as they stake a claim in the development of sustainable tourism that is emerging along the Kokoda Track. The traditional understanding of power dynamics has been the “power as domination” perception, which attributes authority to dominant actors who exercise control over others. To comprehend the women’s role in the development of ecotrekkingalong the Kokoda Track, we offer an alternative understanding of power struggle by invoking Foucault’s notions of power and Gidden’s structuration perspective. By applying these two philosophies, we illustrate how strategies of dominance, negotiation, and resistance are interwoven into day-to-day social interactions between women, men, tourism operators, and local communities. The particular focus of this article is on microbusiness projects along the track, a strategy pursued by the Kokoda Development Program. Women in the communities were generally happy to be supported to establish their own tourism businesses. This is particularly significant as women have traditionally had fewer opportunities than men to make money from trekkers: the main income from tourists into the villages has been through portering services, a predominately male activity. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of this analysis for the empowerment of women in rural and remote communities through sustainable tourism development.

Key words: Women; Sustainable tourism; Empowerment; Microbusiness; Kokoda

Address correspondence to Stephen Wearing, 30 Ettalong Street, Wheeler Heights 2097, Sydney, Australia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 18, pp. 35-49
1098-304X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X
15180180585167
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Critical Approach to the Gender Wage Gap in Tourism Labor

Fiona Eva Bakas, Carlos Costa, Zélia Breda, and Marília Durão

Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism, University of AveiroAveiro, Portugal

Tourism is a highly gendered industry, with strong horizontal and vertical segregation of occupations and this inevitably contributes to an elevated gender wage gap in comparison to other industries. This article investigates some of the underlying causes of the gender wage gap and the ways in which gendered stereotypes and gender norms continue to influence tourism labor relations. Challenging the idea that women “choose” to accept lower wages than men as a neoliberalist rationale that has little bearing on reality, this article adopts a feminist economics lens and investigates how the gender wage gap is created and perpetuated in Portugal’s tourism industry through a thematic analysis of tourism managers’ narratives from focus groups conducted in 2013 and 2014. Viewing individual choice as a myth, the politico-economic conditions that inform people’s actions according to gender roles they are expected to perform are explored. The most frequent gender equality measure adopted by tourism companies in Portugal is ensuring that remuneration is set according to objective criteria, which demonstrates the perceived importance of eradicating the gender pay gap. Despite this, thematic analysis of focus group narratives reveals a persisting inequality within tourism labor. These reveal that horizontal segregation, gendered geographical mobility, and the prevalence of men in hierarchical positions contribute to the maintenance of the gender wage gap in tourism, illustrating a contradiction between the perceived eradication of the gender wage gap and its continuing existence. This article therefore represents an exploration into the ways in which the gender wage gap within tourism is created and maintained.

Key words: Tourism; Labor; Gender wage gap; Feminist economics; Portugal

Address correspondence to Fiona Eva Bakas, Postdoctoral Fellow, Economics, Management, Industrial Engineering and Tourism, University of Aveiro,Santiago Campus, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 18, pp. 51-66
1098-304X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X
15180180585121
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Gendered Natures of Polar Bear Tourism

Olga Yudina,* Bryan S. R. Grimwood,† Lisbeth A. Berbary,† and Heather Mair

*Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
†Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada

This article offers a critique of nature-based Arctic tourism through a gender-aware analysis of representations associated with polar bear tourism in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The guiding purpose of our study was to analyze how “nature” is gendered in its construction and presentation through tourism, and to what effect. Our study focused on revealing dominant gendered expectations and understandings (re)produced in the Churchill polar bear tourism promotional landscape. Drawing on a critical discourse analysis of qualitative and visual promotional texts, we show how various representations of polar bear tourism impose hegemonic gender roles onto polar bear bodies, which are emplaced within a conventionally gendered landscape. As the “Polar Bear Capital of the World,” Churchill’s wildlife viewing industry relies on the (re)creation, dissemination, and maintenance of particular meanings and natures attributed to polar bears, as well as human–polar bear relationships, for economic benefit. This gives rise to questions about how power circulates with respect to Churchill’s tourism production practices, gender being one of many axes of identity through which power operates and is interpolated. Ultimately, the article advances literature on gender-aware analyses of tourism and environment, and argues the promotion of gendered natures must be consistently questioned to create space for more equitable tourism practices.

Key words: Gendered bodies; Gendered landscapes; Discourse analysis; Representation; Nature-based tourism

Address correspondence to Bryan S. R. Grimwood, Associate Professor, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue W., Waterloo, ON, Canada, N2L 3G1. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 18, pp. 67-80
1098-304X/18 $60.00 + .00
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/109830418X
15180180585176
E-ISSN 1943-4146
Copyright © 2018 Cognizant, LLC.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Development in the Russian Arctic: Reproducing or Challenging Hegemomic Masculinities of the Frontier?

Susanna Heldt Cassel and Albina Pashkevich

Centre for Tourism and Leisure Research, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden

The image of the Arctic can be understood as a part of a larger discourse of the north as an uncivilized, untamed frontier, not suitable or accessible for modern, urban people, but a place for strong adventurers, hunters, and explorers. In this study, we seek to understand how hegemonic masculinities of the north both inform and are challenged by tourism and its representations and practices in the Russian Arctic, in particular the Nenets Autonomous District (NAD). The study is based on the analysis of data collected during several field trips to the region during the period of 2012–2013 and 2014, including semistructured interviews with key stakeholders and observations of tourism practices, as well as content analysis of promotional images of selected tourism companies. Tourism in the NAD is typically adventure based: snowmobile safaris, fishing, hunting, and white-water rafting. There are also different types of indigenous tourism, such as living with reindeer herders for a period of time. The tourism industry covered herein consisted of microfirms and small businesses. The entrepreneurs were all middle-aged Russian men and the tourists were predominantly male middle class Russians from metropolitan regions, traveling as groups of friends or colleagues. The results show that despite the willingness of the tourism entrepreneurs to broaden their customer groups and offerings, the products reproduce the destination as a playground for (male) “hook and bullet” tourists. However, there are also examples of how tourism may challenge or reconstruct the understandings of typically masculine or feminine duties or roles in some specific local contexts.

Key words: Russian Arctic; Nenets Autonomous District (NAD); Arctic tourism; Adventure tourism; Hegemonic masculinities

Address correspondence to Albina Pashkevich, Associate Professor, Centre for Tourism and Leisure Research, School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, 791 88 Falun, Sweden. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it