Tourism Development in Critical Environments

Tej Vir Singh and Shalini Singh

ISBN: 1-882345-19-3

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Contents

Foreword
Valene L. Smith

Preface
Tej Vir Singh and Shalini Singh

Chapter 1: Planning Tourism in Sensitive Ecosystems
Edward W. Manning and T. David Dougherty

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Past Management Approaches to Tourism
  • Emerging Management Approaches for Sustainable Tourism
  • Integrating Sustainable Tourism Into the Overall Economy
  • What Do Decision Makers Need to Know?
  • The Effects of Environmental Management
  • Ecotourism: The Controversy and the Promise
  • Conclusion
Chapter 2: Sustainable Tourism and Critical Environments
Ralf Buckley
  • The Evolution of Tourism
  • Environmental Management in Tourism
  • Tourism in Conservation
  • Origins and Types of Ecotourism
  • Definitions of Ecotourism
  • Links Between Tourism and Environment
  • Sustainable Tourism
  • Issues in Ecotourism
  • Tourism in Fragile Environments
  • Conclusions
Chapter 3: Tourism-Environment Interaction: The Greening of Australian Beach Resorts
John J. Pigram and Peiyi Ding
  • Introduction
  • The Coastal Zone
  • Resources of the Coastal Zone
  • Impacts of Tourism on the Coastal Environment
  • Tourism and the Coastal Zone
  • Beach Resorts in the Coastal Zone
  • Environmental Audits
  • Environmental Audits in the Tourism Industry
  • The Greening of Australian Beach Resorts
  • Aanuka Beach Resort
  • Implementation of Environmental Auditing
  • Conclusion
Chapter 4: A Workable Alternative to the Concept of Carrying Capacity: Growth Management Planning
Peter W. Williams and Alison Gill
  • Introduction
  • Tourism Carrying Capacity Management
  • New Management Directions
  • Growth Management Systems
  • Growth Management Planning
  • Whistler Case Study
  • Conclusions
Chapter 5: Coastal Tourism, Conservation, and the Community: Case of Goa
Tej Vir Singh and Shalini Singh
  • Issues
  • Indian Situation
  • The Case of Goa
  • Conservation: Issues and Approaches
  • Coastal Regulation Zone
  • Breaching the Conservation Line
  • The Community
  • Community Protest
  • Concluding Remarks
Chapter 6: Tourism in a Critical Environment: Brazil's Atlantic Coastal Forest
Robert G. Healy
  • Introduction
  • Defining a Study Area
  • Styles of Tourism
  • Problems of Biodiversity Protection in the Atlantic Forest
  • Relating Tourism to Environmental Protection
  • Conclusion
Chapter 7: Working for a Successful Ecotourism Story: The Case of Punta Sal National Park
Ray E. Ashton, Jr.
  • Introduction
  • Punta Sal National Park
  • Key Issues
  • Results
  • PSNP Trust
  • Conclusion
Chapter 8: Rural Ecotourism as a Conservation Tool
Robert H. Horwich and Jonathan Lyon
  • Introduction
  • Ecotourism and Conservation
  • The Community Baboon Sanctuary: Private Landownership-No Government Involvement
  • Manatee Special Development Areas: Private/Public Lands-Community and Government Beginnings
  • Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary: Public Lands-Informal Community and Government Liaison
  • Five Blues Lake National Park: Public Lands-Formal Community and Government Agreement
  • Kickapoo River Community Reserve: Public Lands-Formal Community and Government Legislation
  • Discussion and Conclusions
Chapter 9: Managing Tourism-Induced Acculturation Through Environmental Design on Pueblo Indian Villages in the U.S.
Alan A. Lew
  • The Problem: Acculturation and Tourism
  • Tourism Issues on Pueblo Reservations
  • Environmental Design and Tourism on Pueblo Reservations
  • Conclusions
Chapter 10: Antarctica Tourism: Successful Management of a Vulnerable Environment
John Splettstoesser
  • Introduction
  • Antarctica After World War II
  • Antarctic Treaty
  • Onset of Tourism in Antarctica
  • Other Types of Tourism and Impacts on Science Programs
  • Environmental Impacts?
  • State of Today's Tourism in Antarctica: Formation of Environmental Guidelines and IAATO
  • Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
  • ATCM-Kyoto, 1994
  • Future of Antarctic Tourism
Chapter 11: Tourism in Sensitive Environments: Three African Success Stories
Charlotte M. Echtner
  • Introduction
  • Senegal: Village Tourism in a Sensitive Cultural Environment
  • Uganda: Gorilla Tourism in a Sensitive Natural Environment
  • Namibia: Tourism in a ``New'' Country
  • Conclusion
Chapter 12: Developing Tourism in the Environmentally Sensitive North West Cape Region, Western Australia
Ross K. Dowling
  • Introduction
  • The Built Environment
  • Tourism
  • Methodology
  • Findings
  • Tourism Zones
  • Recent Developments
  • The Future
Contributors

Bibliography

Index

List of Figures

1.1. Relationship between humans and their environment using an ``ecosphere'' approach
2.1. Aspects and definitions of ecotourism
2.2. Sustainable tourism: major links
3.1. Australia settlement pattern
3.2. Queensland resorts and resort islands
6.1. Atlantic coastal forest in southern Brazil
7.1. Punta Sal National Park
7.2. Structure of Punta Sal National Park Authority
8.1. Map of Belize
8.2. Rueben Rhaburn, local guide, lectures tourists on natural phenomenon
8.3. Joe Herrera, of Isabella Bank, measuring endangered Central American river turtle
8.4. Meeting at Gales Point Community Building between villagers and Government of Belize staff and politicians
8.5. Lindo Saqui with author (Horwich) tracking translocated howlers at Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary
8.6. Dickey Slusher, of Gales Point, constructing protective barrier against hawksbill turtle nest predation
8.7. Visitors at a Gales Point ``bed-and-breakfast'' residence
8.8. Research ``tourists'' at Maya Centre crafts cooperative building and registration area
8.9. Wisconsin Governor, Tommy Thompson, signs state legislation for the Kickapoo River Authority
9.1. Map of pueblo village reservations in New Mexico and Arizona
11.1. Location of tourist villages in Senegal
11.2. Location of gorilla tourism in Uganda
11.3. Location of two exemplary tourism projects in Namibia
12.1. North West Cape, Western Australia
12.2. Tourism development philosophy
12.3. Plann methodology
12.4. Proposed accommodation complexes in Cape Range National Park

List of Tables

1.1. Translating environmental functions into benefits valued by society
2.1. Major subsectors and environmental management issues
2.2. Characteristics, issues, and information needs in ecotourism
2.3. Environmental impacts of transport and travel
2.4. Environmental impacts of accommodation and shelter
5.1. Tourist arrivals in Goa 1985-1995
5.2. Green tourism: the conflicting views
9.1. Competing value systems common on American Indian reservations
9.2. Major motivations for visiting Northern Arizona
9.3. Pueblo Indian comments on tourism
9.4. Signage considerations for village design and tourism management
9.5. Acceptability of tourist behavior
9.6. Pueblo village tourism design elements
9.7. Pueblo village tourism design prescriptions
10.1. Estimate of 1996-97 season tourist cruises to Antarctica
10.2. Membership of International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO)
12.1. Minimum sustainable development approach
12.2. Maximum carrying capacity approach

Book Review

The following excerpts are from a book review by Lesley France, Editor of Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Tourism, appearing in the Spring 2000 issue (#35) of Tourism in Focus, pp. 18-19:

Tourism Development in Critical Environments.. Tej Vir Singh and Shalini Singh (Eds.). Cognizant Communication Corp., New York, NY, 1999. $30.00.

Assembling a group of varied and useful case studies that illuminate specific aspects of theory is always a time-consuming and often difficult task for any student, lecturer or research worker. This volume of collected studies rises to the task. In each contribution the focus is upon tourism development with minimal negative and maximum beneficial impacts. Each illustrates a particular theoretical point, which it develops in some detail. Even contributions that have a largely theoretical focus, use extensive small-scale examples to support and clarify theory and make it more accessible to the reader. Aspects of best practice are highlighted throughout so not only the academic, but also the practitioner, should find this volume informative.

While clearly written and well referenced, the illustrative material is patchy and of variable quality. There is one contribution only with photographs but they add little to the text and while many of the maps and diagrams are useful, they could have been clearer and there could have been more, for example in the chapter on Goa.

Overall this is an excellent text and I hope that it receives the recognition and application that it deserves.