Casino Gambling in America: Origins, Trends and Impacts

Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt and Rudi Hartmann, Editors

ISBN: 1-992345-46-0

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Introduction
Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt and Rudi Hartmann

Part I. Casino Gambling in America: An Overview

Chapter 1. Casino Gaming-Origins, Trends, and Impacts
William R. Eadington

  • Introduction
  • The Spread of Casinos in North America
  • The Range of Policy Issues
  • Economic and Geographic Realities of Casino Gaming
  • Conclusion
Chapter 2. Casino Management in the 1990s: Concepts and Challenges
William R. Eadington
  • Introduction
  • The Evolution of Casino Management
  • A Profile of the Casino Industry in America Today
  • Considerations for Modern Casino Management
  • Conclusion
Chapter 3. The Changing Economic Geography of the Casino Industry in Nevada and Atlantic City
Wesley S. Roehl
  • Introduction
  • Information on Nevada Casinos
  • Trends in the Nevada Casino Industry
  • Information Sources on Atlantic City Casinos
  • Trends in the Atlantic City Casino Industry
  • Discussion
  • Summary
Chapter 4. From East Coast Monopoly to Destination Resort: The Geographic Context of Atlantic City's Transformation
Charles A. Stansfield
  • Introduction
  • Atlantic City's Experience in the Midst of Intensifying Competition
  • Geography and the Changing Casino Industry
  • Creating New Markets
Part II. Casino Gambling and Native Americans

Chapter 5. Growth of Indian Gaming in the United States
James A. Davis and Samuel M. Otterstrom

  • Introduction
  • Reservation Conditions
  • The New Buffalo
  • Growth of Indian Gaming in the United States
  • Successes
  • Constraints
  • Conclusion
Chapter 6. Foxwoods Resort Casino, Connecticut-A Mega Attraction: Who Wants it? Who Benefits?
Barbara A. Carmichael
  • Introduction
  • Foxwoods Resort Casino: Birth of a Mega-Attraction
  • Impact of Foxwoods on the Mashantucket-Pequot Tribe
  • Impact of Foxwoods Casino on Southeastern Connecticut
  • Conclusion
Chapter 7. The New Buffalo: Tribal Casino Expansion in the Dakotas
Donald J. Berg
  • Introduction
  • Study Area
  • Methodology
  • Conclusions
Chapter 8. Tribal-State Cooperation or Contention?: Indian Gaming in Oklahoma
Brad A. Bays
  • Introduction
  • Indian Sovereignty and Development
  • State-Tribal Cooperation or Contention
  • Tribal-State Relations in Oklahoma
  • IGRA and Oklahoma
  • The Geographical Stakes: Oklahoma Indian Population and Land
  • Oklahoma Indian Bingo
  • The IGRA and Tribal-State Contention in Oklahoma
  • Conclusion
Chapter 9. To the Supreme Court: Indian Gaming in the Southeastern United States
Roger Dendinger
  • Introduction
  • Poarch Band of Creek Indians v. Alabama
  • Jurisdictional Conflicts Under IGRA
  • Final Comments
Part III. Casino Gambling in Mining Towns

Chapter 10. Gambling in Deadwood, SD: A Metamorphosis
Roger P. Miller

  • Introduction
  • The Past
  • The Present
  • The Future
Chapter 11. Booms, Busts, and Winning Streaks: Casino Development in Two Colorado Mountain Towns
Rudi Hartmann
  • Introduction
  • Cyclical and Directional Change in Colorado Mountain Towns
  • Central City and Black Hawk: Two Communities in Change
  • Conclusion: Continued Economic Development or Historic Preservation at Last?
Chapter 12. Community Impacts and Revisionist Images in Colorado Gaming Development
Patricia A. Stokowski
  • Introduction
  • Gambling as Community Development
  • Gaming Industry Development
  • Community Impacts of Gaming Development
  • Transforming Community Images
  • Conclusions
Part IV. Riverboat and Dockside Casino Gambling

Chapter 13. From the River to the Sea: Casino Gambling in Mississippi
Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt

  • Introduction
  • Background of Gaming in Mississippi
  • The Mississippi Gaming Control Act of 1990
  • Locational Factors in Casino Siting
  • Patterns of Casino Development
  • Tunica County
  • Harrison County
  • Vicksburg
  • Conclusions
Chapter 14. The Only Game in Town: The Cultural Politics of Riverboat Gambling in Cape Girardeau and Scott City, MO
Deborah P. Dixon
  • Introduction
  • Initiating the Gambling Debate
  • Taking Casinos Into the Establishment
  • The Rhetoric of ``Urban Blight''
  • The Rhetoric of ``Economic Necessity''
  • ``The End Justifies the Means''
  • Constructing a Gambling Site
  • Conclusion
Chapter 15. Riverboat Gambling as Urban Revitalization ``Lagniappe'': The Case of Baton Rouge, LA
Anne E. Mosher and Monique M. Wheeler
  • Introduction
  • The National Context: ``New Federalism'' and Urban Revitalization Strategies
  • The State Context: The High-Stakes Louisiana Race for Riverboat Casinos
  • Three Companies Compete for Two Licenses
  • The Local Context: Landscape and Geography of Riverboat Gaming in Baton Rouge
  • The Shifting Geography of Gaming in Louisiana
  • Conclusions
Part V. Land Use Patterns and Impacts: Selected Case Studies

Chapter 16. Mesquite, NV: From Mormon Village to Gaming Boomtown
Lloyd E. Hudman and Richard H. Jackson

  • Introduction
  • Settlement and Early History
  • From Agriculture to Gaming Industry: Transformation of a Mormon Village
  • The Future: Emergence of a New Recreation and Gaming Center in Nevada
  • Conclusion
Chapter 17. Urban Property Around a Planned Casino Site in Windsor, Ontario, 1975-1993
Alan G. Phipps and John P. Lowrie
  • Introduction
  • Processes Behind Investment in Property and Land
  • Multivariate ARIMA Theory
  • Study Neighborhood
  • Property Sales and Price Data
  • Model Estimation
  • Conclusion
Chapter 18. In the Absence of Casinos: A Look at Video Poker
Allaire S. Posey
  • Introduction
  • The Big Business of Legalized Gambling
  • The Gambling Debate
  • Developing a Typology of Video Poker
  • Future of Video Poker in South Carolina
Contributors

Bibliography

Index

3.1. Regional distribution of Nevada casinos
3.2. Regional distribution of total Nevada casino revenue
3.3. Regional distribution of casino department revenue in Nevada casinos
3.4. Sources of casino revenue in Atlantic City casinos
5.1. Indian gaming establishments in the United States, 1980
5.2. Indian gaming establishments in the United States, 1984
5.3. Growth of Indian gaming in the United States
5.4. Indian gaming establishments in the United States, 1988
5.5. Indian gaming establishments in the United States, 1994
5.6. Indian gaming compacts in the United States, 1994
6.1. Location of Foxwoods Resort casino
6.2. Origin of Foxwood visitors arriving by private vehicle
6.3. Origin of Foxwood visitors arriving by charter bus
7.1. Indian reservations in North and South Dakota
7.2. Tribal casino locations in North and South Dakota
7.3. Locational aspects of tribal casinos in North and South Dakota and western Minnesota
8.1. Indian lands of Oklahoma
8.2. Restricted lands vs. tribal lands in Oklahoma
8.3. Indian gaming establishments in Oklahoma
9.1. Indian gaming establishments in the southeastern United States
9.2. Proposed Poarch Creek casino at Wetumpka, Alabama
10.1. Deadwood and South Dakota's Black Hills
10.2. Urban components of Deadwood, South Dakota
10.3. The Elks Carnival, 1892, Deadwood
10.4. Pheonix building after 1991
10.5. The proposed Dunbar Conference and Golf Resort
11.1. The resort cycle model
11.2. The relative location of Central City and Black Hawk
11.3. Chronology of settlement patterns of the Central City/Black Hawk area
13.1. Gambling casinos in Mississippi
13.2. Casino growth in Mississippi
13.3. Monthly gross gaming revenue in Mississippi
13.4. Monthly gross gaming revenue per casino in Mississippi
13.5. Casinos of Tunica County, Mississippi
13.6. Cross section of a typical casino, Tunica County, Mississippi
13.7. Casinos of Harrison County, Mississippi
13.8. Casinos of Vicksburg, Mississippi
14.1. Location of Cape Girardeau and Scott City, MO
14.2. Proposed location of casinos, Cape Girardeau, MO
15.1. Louisiana riverboat casino locations
15.2. Downtown Baton Rouge
15.3. The race for Baton Rouge casino riverboat licenses cartoon
15.4. Potential casino regional trade areas
16.1. The greater Mormon culture region
16.2. Population changes in Mesquite
16.3. Population change in St. George and Washington Counties
16.4. The Peppermill Casino
16.5. Employment in Mesquite
16.6. Principal land uses in Mesquite
17.1. Property sales in the Glengarry neighborhood, Windsor, Ontario
17.2. Deflated property prices in the Glengarry neighborhood, Windsor, Ontario
17.3. Numbers of property sales in the Glengarry neighborhood, Windsor, Ontario
18.1. Distribution of video poker machines
1.1. States with casinos and casino-style gaming
3.1. Distinctive sources of total revenue in Nevada casinos
3.2. Distinctive sources of casino department revenue in Nevada casinos
4.1. Population trends
4.2. Expansion of casino gaming in Atlantic City
6.1. Annual averages of employment in New London County
7.1. Tribal casinos located in North Dakota
7.2. Tribal casinos located in South Dakota
7.3. Comparative tribal statistics for North Dakota reservations
7.4. Comparative tribal statistics for South Dakota reservations
7.5. Construction expenditures, number of employees, and number of gaming devices for tribal casinos
7.6. Status of tribal casinos in North and South Dakota
12.1. Colorado gaming industry indicators
12.2. Economic and social indicators associated with gaming development
15.1. Top ranking incorporated urban areas in Louisiana
16.1. Mesquite's workforce
16.2. Top ten employers in Mesquite
17.1. ARIMA of deflated monthly property prices in Glengarry
17.2. ARIMA of monthly property sales in Glengarry
18.1. Comparison of gambling venues by state that have legalized video poker
18.2. Video poker sites and machines for Lexington and Richland Counties
18.3. Ownership patterns for video poker licenses in Columbia, SC
18.4. Distribution of video poker machines by type of establishment
18.5. Details of ancillary class of establishments with video poker machines
18.6. Estimate of potential costs related to pathological gambling

Book Review

The following excerpts are from a book review by Raymond P. Baruffalo, Department of Geography, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, appearing in the September 1999 (Vol. 89, No. 3) issue of the Annals of the Association of American Geographers (pp. 561-565):

Casino Gambling in America: Origins, Trends, and Impacts. Klaus J. Meyer-Arendt and Rudi Hartmann, eds. Elmsford, NY: Cognizant Communication Corp., 1998.

My ambivalence toward Casino Gambling in America is similar to that which I harbor toward widespread legalized casino gambling itself; that is, while its positive contributions in certain contexts is evident, an unevenness in those contributions is unavoidable. Largely drawn from papers presented at the 1994 meeting of the Association of Americna Geographers, this volume, like many similarly constructed, lacks an overall cohesiveness. Nevertheless, this is the most important collection of essays on gambling by (primarily) geographers that has yet appeared.

The stated purpose of Casino Gambling in America is to "provide not only better understanding of national and state trends in casino gambling issues but also greater knowledge of some of the controversies present at local venues" (p. xi). In this task, the book succeeds, as it brings the reader up to date on the many forms of caino gambling found in the U.S., and at the same time demonstrates the overwhelming importance of local context.

The eighteen chapters of Casino Gambling in America are usefully organized into five sections, each with a brief introduction written by the editors. Part I, "Casino Gambling in America: An Overview," is introduced with two chapters written by William R. Eadington, one of the most prominent scholars in the field of gambling studies.

Geographers have much to contribute to research on casinos. The disparate local socioeconomic circumstances and the role of governments at all levels that are entailed in whether to adopt gambling casinos as a development strategy should interest not only tourism geographers, but other political and economic as well as cultural geographers. This volume provides a starting point.