Evaluation of Events: Scandinavian Experiences

Lena L. Mossberg

ISBN: 1-882345-40-1


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Structure of the Book

Chapter 1. Event Evaluations
Lena L. Mossberg

1.1  Introduction
1.2  Definitions
1.3  Events Tourism Evaluation
1.4  The Framework of the Book

Chapter 2. Traveling to Events
Magnus Bohlin

2.1  Background
2.2  Theoretical Framework
2.3  Empirical Studies
2.4  Conclusion

Chapter 3. Effects of Events on Destination Image
Lena L. Mossberg

3.1  Background
3.2  Theoretical Framework
3.3  Empirical Study
3.4  Conclusion

Chapter 4. The Locals - Local Knowledge, Participation, and Identity
Monica Hanefors

4.1  Background
4.2  Theoretical Framework
4.3  Empirical Study
4.4  Conclusion

Chapter 5. Learning Effects - The Case of the Lillehammer Olympic Winter Games 1994
Bente R. Løwendahl

5.1  Background
5.2  Theoretical Framework
5.3  Empirical Study
5.4  Conclusion

Chapter 6. Financial Effects of Events on the Public Sector
Tommy D. Andersson and Lars A. Samuelsson

6.1  Background
6.2  Theoretical Framework
6.3  Empirical Study
6.4  Conclusion

Chapter 7. Event Economics: Top-Down Approaches
Lars Hultkrantz

7.1  Background
7.2  Theoretical Framework
7.3  Empirical Study
7.4  Conclusion

Chapter 8. Beyond Intermezzo? On the long-Term Industrial Impacts of Mega-Events - The Case of Lillehammer 1994
Olav R. Spilling

8.1  Background
8.2  Theoretical Framework
8.3  Empirical Study
8.4  Conclusion

Chapter 9. Event Strategies in Practice

9.1  Events as Part of the Destination Marketing
9.2  Destination Marketing as Part of the Communities Competition
9.3  Attitudes of the Locals Toward Events
9.4  The Decision Process of Events Related to Public Financing

List of Exhibits

7.1. Summer Olympic Games in Stockholm 2004

List of Figures

1.1. Diagrammatic event framework
1.2. An economic categorization of public events
1.3. A framework for monitoring the impact of tourism events
1.4. The building blocks of the book
2.1. A general relationship between interaction and distance
2.2. Spatial significance of the demand function for event tourism
2.3. The relationship between attendance at the Falun Folk music Festival and distance to the city of Falun 2.4. The hinterland of the Falun Folk music Festival 1989 - attendance related to regional population
2.5. The relationship between attendance to the Choir Festival and distance to the event
2.6. The hinterland of the Choir Festival in Skinnskatteberg 1990 - attendance related to regional population
2.7. The relationship between attendance at the Nordic Ski Championship and distance to the city of Falun
2.8. The hinterland of the Nordic Ski Championship in Falun 1993 - attendance related to regional population
2.9. Travel flows to second homes located in the region of Bohuslän. The share of visitors are shown by proportionate line width. Shaded regions supply visitors to Bohuslän (based on TDB-data)
2.10. The hinterland of those participating in Vasaloppet ski race in 1995 - attendance related to regional population
2.11. The hinterland of the three ski races Vasaloppet, Öppet spår and Tjejvasan respectively - attendance related to regional population
2.12. The hinterland of the visitors to the Swedish Rally 1998 in the cities of Borlänge and Fatun - attendance related to regional population
2.13. The hinterland of the Swedish Rally 1998 - attendance related to regional population
2.14. A simplified travel model portraying two major types of travel itineraries 3.1. The awareness pyramid
3.2. Awareness levels and image objects - a synthesis
3.3. The attribute/holistic and functional/psychological components of destination image (pre and post)
3.4. The common/unique and functional/psychological components of destination image (pre and post)
3.5. The attribute/holistic and the common/unique components of destination image (pre and post)
4.1. Local participation in 'workshops' (n=289)
4.2. Local participation in audience (n=289)
4.3. Voluntary work/engagement during the Festival (n=289)
4.4. 'The Festival visitors from elsewhere like Skinnskatteberg' - an argument corresponding with local opinions (n=289)
4.5. Does the Choir Festival paint a 'portrait' of Skinnskatteberg? (n=289)
4.6. The Festival as irritant - two arguments not corresponding with local opinions (n=289)
4.7. 'I gain economically from the Choir Festival' - an argument not corresponding with local opinions (n=289)
4.8. 'I would prefer Skinnskatteberg not to hold the Choir Festival - an argument not corresponding with local opinions (n=289)
5.1. Stylized stakeholder map
6.1. Three levels of evaluation of events according to a 'bottom-up' perspective
6.2. A general model of the effects of events on the public sector. Boxes with bold text represent the effects that have an impact on the public sector
7.1. Decision tree for a choice between two arenas (Outdoor and Indoor) when pay-offs (displayed in the diagram) are contingent on weather (Sun or Rain)
7.2. Decision tree for a choice between three arena alternatives (Outdoor, Outdoor with tent, and Indoor) when pay-offs (displayed in the diagram) are contingent on weather (Sun or Rain)
7.3. Decision tree for a choice between two arenas (Outdoor and Indoor) when pay-offs (displayed in the diagram) are contingent on weather (Sun or Rain) and arena reservation can be cancelled after the appearance of a reliable weather forecast
7.4 a-c Three different dynamic impact responses of an event on a dependent variable
7.5.a. Guest-nights in July (1994 = 100)
7.5.b. Guest-nights in August (1994 = 100)
8.1. Stylized models for regional impacts of mega-events
8.2. Storey's model for evaluation of local employment initiative (Storey 1990)
8.3. The Olympic region
8.4. Participants in mass sports events in Lillehammer 1987-1997
8.5. Development of guest nights in the three destinations most affected by the Olympics
8.6. Development of unemployment 1988-1996 (Data from Statistics Norway, Unemployment statistics)
8.7. Population development 1980-1997 (Data from Statistics Norway, population statistics, data as of January lst each year)

List of Tables

3.1. The objective and methodology of previous destination image research
3.2. The respondents
3.3. The most frequent descriptions regarding the open-ended questions
3.4. Mean values for selected image scale items
6.1. A basic input-output transaction table (cf. Fletcher 1989)
6.2. A description of the secondary effects of the estimated economic impact of Olympic Games 2004 in Stockholm. The third column describes the vector Snxl from Model (1)
6.3. The net direct secondary effects and the indirect effects calculated by using the column Snxl and the 'Leontief inverse.' The third column corresponds to Nnxl in Model (1)
6.4. The distribution of tertiary effects among 'basic economic elements'
6.5. Hypothetical Swedish tax rates applied to the four 'basic economic elements'. This table corresponds to the matrix P3x4 in Model (3)
6.6. A column showing the tax revenues and social security fees circulated according to Model (3). All values in BSEK. This table corresponds to the matrix T3x1 in Model (3)
6.7. A calculation of estimated total effects on the public sector of Olympic Games 2004 in Stockholm.
6.8. Effects for the event and the public sector
7.1. Estimated ARDL-equation for the number of guest nights by visitors from Norway in the Göteborg region. The guest-night variable is differenced twice (one month and one year), and the price variable is differenced once (one month)
8.1. Key figures on the Lillehammer Winter Olympics 1994
8.2. Stages of industrial activity related to the Olympics
8.3. Visitors at tourist attractions located in the Lillehammer area 1990-1997
8.4. Visitors at Olympic facilities 1992-96
8.5. Summary of impacts related to the Lillehammer Winter Olympics

Book Reviews

The following excerpts are from a book review by Don Getz, University of Calgary, appearing in the journal Event Management (2000), Vol. 6, pp. 205-206:

This book is a significant and unique addition to the event literature, both in terms of its research base and the Scandinavian perspective. It is a compilation of material, basically from Sweden and to a lesser extent Norway, that demonstrates the strength of event research in that part of the world. The contributing Scandinavians are drawing from traditional disciplinary approaches including economics, geography, other social sciences, and tourism, and are not from departments that have event management programs.

It is difficult to see this book being used as a text in event management programs, or outside Scandinavia, but it has real value in advancing theory and methods of event evaluation. It belongs in every tourism and event library.

The following excerpts are from a book review by Hubert B. Van Hoof, Northern Arizona University, appearing in the Journal of Travel Research (2001, August), Vol. 40, p. 117:

The study of the various impacts of events has seen a tremendous growth over the past two decades.

Evaluation of Events: Scandinavian Experiences, which is a result of this trend, emphasizes "the importance of systematically evaluating the various impacts of events, as an adjunct to the planning and policy development activities of public and private sector organizations" (p. 2). The reason it primarily looks at Scandinavian events is twofold. First, there is a lack of books that look at events from a European perspective (most existing books offer U.S. or Australian perspectives). Second, it is the result of a 4-year research program into the economics of events conducted by the Stockholm School of Economics and sponsored by the city of Stockholm. With the 1994 Lillehammer Olympics in their own backyard, many of the contributing researchers in Scandinavia had a mega-event to sink their teeth into.

The editor has succeeded very well in bringing together scholars from various disciplines to present their views on event impacts, and each chapter offers a nice combination of theory and practical application. This is a book that can be recommended to anyone interested in the topic, and it will be of definite interest to those looking for different ways in which events and their impacts can be analyzed.