Horror and Human Tragedy Revisited

Gregory Ashworth & Rudi Hartmann

ISBN: 1-882345-35-5

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Contents

1. Introduction: Managing Atrocity for Tourism
Gregory Ashworth and Rudi Hartmann

  • Atrocity, Tourism, and Management
  • Why Are Tourists Attracted by Atrocity?
  • Wider Impacts of Atrocity Heritage Tourism
SECTION 1: THE MANAGEMENT OF ATROCITY SITES FOR TOURISM

Chapter 2. Penal Colonies and Tourism With Reference to Robben Island, South Africa: Commodifying the Heritage of Atrocity?
John E. Tunbridge

  • The Argument
  • Penal Colonies as Islands
  • Islands as Penal Colonies
  • The Penal Archetype: Australia
  • Robben Island, South Africa
  • Other Penal Islands: A Spectrum of Tourism Potential?
  • Revealing and Revalorizing: Atrocity, Identity, Ecology, and Tourism
Chapter 3. When Time Heals: The Present Interpretation of 18th Century Acadian, Planter, and Loyalist Heritage Sites in Nova Scotia, Canada
Gregory Ashworth
  • "Of Old Unhappy Far Off Things and Battles Long Ago"
  • Three Cases From Nova Scotia
  • Towards Reconciliation
Chapter 4. From Tragedy to Symbol: The Efforts to Designate the Sand Creek Massacre Site as a National Historic Site
Christine Whitacre and Jerome A. Greene

Chapter 5. Public Monuments and Political Correctness
Tom Noel

Chapter 6. Andersonville: A Site Steeped in Controversy
Fred Boyles

  • Historical Background
  • Early Preservation Efforts
  • Legislation to Preserve Andersonville
  • National Park Service Administration
  • Andersonville's Attraction to Visitors
  • The Visitor Experience
  • The Controversy Lives On
  • Conclusion
SECTION 2: HOLOCAUST MEMORIALS AND MEMORIALIZATION OF THE HOLOCAUST

Chapter 7. Holocaust Memorials Without Holocaust Survivors: The Management of Museums and Memorials to Victims of Nazi Germany in 21st Century Europe
Rudi Hartmann

  • Memorials and Memorialization in Europe
  • The Management of Memorial Sites and Museums for Tourism in the 1990s
  • Political Culture and Layout and Design of Memorial Sites of the Holocaust
Chapter 8. Attitudes of Israeli Visitors Towards the Holocaust Remembrance Site of Yad Vashem
Shaul Krakover
  • Vad Vashem Site and Visitors: Dissonance-Softening Policies
  • Yad Vashem: Whose Heritage?
  • Summary and Conclusions
Chapter 9. Reshaping Dachau for Visitors: 1933-2000
Harold Marcuse
  • The "Clean Camp": 1933-1943
  • The "Dirty Camp": 1943-1945
  • "Cleaning Up" the Former Concentration Camp: 1946-1955
  • The Move Toward Documenting the Past: 1955-1960
  • The "Green" Memorial Site
  • The Sanitized Memorial Site: 1965-1966
  • Visitor Statistics: 1950-1995
  • Reconstruction Versus Preservation: Changes 1966-2003
  • Conclusion
Chapter 10. The Neue Wache in Berlin: From the Wars of Liberation to the Liberation From the War
Ries Roowaan
  • Berlin: Prussian Capital-German Capital
  • German Partition
  • From Bonn to Berlin
  • The Management of the Memorial
  • Conclusion
Chapter 11. Trauma Revisited: The Holocaust Memorial in Berlin
Odile Jansen
  • The Project
  • The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe as a Future Site of Holocaust Tourism
  • Conclusions
SECTION 3: ARE TOURISTS ATTRACTED TO SITES OF ATROCITY AND WAR--OR DETERRED?

Chapter 12. Estimating the Effect of Atrocious Events on the Flow of Tourists to Israel
Shaul Krakover

  • Literature Review
  • Methodology
  • Analysis of Results
  • Summary and Concluding Remarks
Chapter 13. The Recovery and the Transition of Tourism to Market Economy in Southeastern Europe
Anton Gosar
  • The Rule of Chaos in the Core of Ex-Yugoslavia (1991-2000)
  • Tourism in Southeastern Europe in the 1990s
  • The Recovery of Tourism in Ex-Yugoslavia
  • Conclusions
Chapter 14. After the War: Ethnic Tourism to Lebanon
Richard Butler and Rime Hajar
  • Ethnic and VFR Tourism
  • Tourism in Lebanon in Peace and War
  • Ex-Resident Movements to Lebanon
  • The Survey and Results
  • Conclusions
Chapter 15. Performing Family: Cultural Travel to Ghana's Slave Castles
Sandra L. Richards
  • Casting Oneself
  • Geographies of Performance
  • Contact Zones
  • Remembering What Might Have Been
Chapter 16. Children of the Dark
Graham M. S. Dann
  • Films
  • Television
  • Advertising
  • The Print Media
  • Conclusion
Chapter 17. The Management of Horror and Human Tragedy
Gregory Ashworth and Rudi Hartmann
  • Dissonance in Heritage
  • Strategies for Managing the Heritage of Atrocity
Index

List of Figures

2.1 Port Arthur and Tasman Peninsula
2.2 Port Arthur, ruins and harbor
2.3 Rottnest Island, Western Australia
2.4 Robben Island and Cape Town, South Africa
2.5 Robben Island shipwreck and hazardous crossing
2.6 Robben Island restored government quarters
2.7 Robben Island Mandela's cell block
2.8 Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
3.1 Acadian settlement in the Maritimes
3.2 Planter settlement in the Maritimes
3.3 Loyalist settlement in the Maritimes
6.1 View from the Andersonville stockade showing deplorable conditions
6.2 Prisoners were buried in a 4-foot-deep trench shoulder to shoulder
6.3 Conditions at Northern camps where Confederates were held
6.4 Oak Grove Cemetery in Americus, Georgia
6.5 The Georgia monument, commissioned in 1970
6.6 The National Prisoner of War Museum
7.1 The Nazi concentration camp system (1933-1945)
7.2 Visitors to the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam 1960-2002
9.1 Plan of the prisoners' and crematorium compounds of Dachau
9.2 Comparisons of blueprints of Dachau camp (1938) and as remodeled (1948)
9.3 Map of the region surrounding the former Dachau camp
9.4 Design for a "green" Dachau memorial site
9.5 Graph of visitors to Dachau 1950-1996 with German and foreign visitors
9.6 Graph of visitors to Dachau 1950-1996 with school and youth groups
9.7 Graph of annual visitor statistic for Dachau and two comparable destinations
9.8 Nazi-era inscription on wall in west wing of Dachau
10.1 The Neue Wache
10.2 The Pieta
11.1 Proposed location of the memorial project
11.2 Model of "Field of Memory"
12.1 Fluctuations of tourist arrivals to Israel, 1966-1996
12.2 Frequency of atrocious events classified by severity index
12.3 Estimated lagged reductions in tourist arrivals
12.4 Detrended fluctuations in tourist arrivals to Israel, 1966-1996
12.5 Estimated changes in tourist arrivals via autocorrelation lagged distribution model

List of Tables

3.1 National Historic Parks/Sites in the Maritime Provinces
6.1 Andersonville Deaths: 1864-1865
6.2 Civil War Prison Camps
8.1 Statistics of responses to statements related to Yad Vashem
8.2 Concepts that best describe feelings following visit to Yad Vashem
8.3 Significantly different responses of Visitors with and without Holocaust background
8.4 Significantly different responses of visitors with different degrees of Holocaust background
8.5 Significantly different responses of visitors classified by age
12.1 Severity of atrocious events index
12.2 Regression coefficients of tourist flow with annual trend and terror events
12.3 Regression coefficients of tourist flow with annual trend and lagged terror events
12.4 Estimated reduction in tourists as a result of terror events
12.5 Regression coefficients of detrended tourist flow with lagged atrocious events
12.6 Schedule of reduction in tourist arrivals
13.1 Serbia and Montenegro: Tourists and instability factors
13.2 Southeastern Europe: International inbound tourists
13.3 Southeastern Europe: International inbound tourists' length of stay
13.4 Southeastern Europe: International inbound tourism accommodation
13.5 Slovenia: Tourist visits 1965-202
13.6 Slovenia: Accommodation type and occupancy, 1965-2002
13.7 Slovenia: Tourists according to residency, 1965-2002
13.8 Slovenia: Visits to selected spa-resorts 1961-1995
14.1 Estimated number of tourist arrivals to Lebanon by nationality
14.2 Purposes of visits to Lebanon 1972
14.3 Visitors to Lebanon 1992-1999