Mountain Resort Planning & Development : in an Era of Globalization

Thomas Clark, Alison Gill, and Rudi Hartmann

ISBN: 1-882345-47-9

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Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction
Thomas Clark

  • Mountains in the Public Consciousness
  • One Fifth of the Earth's Landmass
  • Scope and Themes
  • Globalization Conceived
  • Equity, Sustainability, and the Rationing of Scarce Landscapes
  • Preservation Through Reservation
  • Beyond the Utilitarian
  • Managing the Common Pool
  • Mountain Resorts
  • Mountain Resort Development and Planning
  • Prospects
SECTION I: GLOBALIZATION, TOURISM, AND MOUNTAIN RESORT DESTINATIONS
Alison Gill

Chapter 2. Cross-Border Cooperation in Tourism Planning the Alps: Problems and Progress
Friedrich M. Zimmermann

  • About Borders
  • Tourism and Borders
  • Tourism Policies and Tourism Planning Approaches
  • Institutional Cooperation and Its Role in Cross-Border Tourism Development in Europe
  • The Contribution of Research to Cross-Border Cooperation in Tourism
  • Conclusion
Chapter 3. Corporate Responsibility and Place: The Case of Whistler, British Columbia
Alison Gill and Peter Williams
  • Introduction
  • Conceptual Background
  • The Case Study: Intrawest and the Resort of Whistler
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
Chapter 4. Local Tourism Development in a World of Global Interdependence: The Case of Japanese Tourism in Whistler, British Columbia
Daisaku Yamamoto
  • Introduction
  • The Globalization of Tourism Production Systems
  • Characteristics of Japanese Overseas Tourism
  • Linking the Japanese Tourists to Whistler: The Tourism Production System
  • Discussion
Chapter 5. Villard de Lans: Global Intervention and Local Resurgence
Laurence Keith Loftin and Jacqueline G. Victor
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Transition to a Global Economy
  • Prospects
SECTION II: THE CHALLENGE OF SUSTAINABILITY IN THE FACE OF GROWTH
Rudi Hartmann

Chapter 6. Trustafarians and Rastafarians: What Mountain Towns Can Learn From the Development Paths of High-End Caribbean Resorts
Paul Lorah

  • Islands in the Lycra Archipelago
  • Jobs and the Environment: The Big Shift
  • Scripted Spaces: From the New Plantation House to the New Ski Villages
  • Inland Islands
  • Amenity Economies and Environmental Change: The Second Conquest
  • The Potential for Sustainable Development in Resort Regions
Chapter 7. Ski Areas and Sustainable Community Development: "Global-Local" Tensions at Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand
Simon Milne, Hamish Bremner, and Manuela Delpero
  • Introduction
  • Case Study and Method
  • Global-Local Tensions in Ohakune
  • Local Response: A Role for ICT?
  • Conclusions
Chapter 8. Winter Tourism and Land Development in Gunnison, Colorado
Adam Orens, Andrew Seidl, and Stephan Weiler
  • Introduction
  • Study Site
  • Combining Revealed and Stated Preference: Literature Review
  • Data Collection Methods
  • Results
  • Economic Impacts: Literature Review
  • Economic Impacts: Results
  • Conclusion
Chapter 9. Sustainable Tourism Perception in the European Alps: Examples From Italy and Slovenia
Anton Gosar
  • Introduction
  • Tourism in the Alpen-Adria Region
  • The Winter Sport Resorts of the Alpen-Adria Region
  • Towards the Enhancement of Natural and Cultural Resources
  • Between Market Economy and Sustainable Development
  • The Fieldwork
  • Conclusion
SECTION III: RESORT DEVELOPMENT FOR WHOM?
Thomas Clark

Chapter 10. Quality of Life Conflict in Banff, Canada: Toward a Framework for Resolution
Sandy McAndrews and Dianne Draper

  • Introduction
  • Context of Research
  • Linking Theory and Public Participation to Quality of Life
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions and Implications
Chapter 11. Paradise's Closing Door: Dynamics of Residential Exclusion in Mountain Resort Regions
Thomas A. Clark
  • Introduction
  • Underhousing: National Dimensions
  • Rural Housing Affordability
  • Rural Resort Regions: The Mountain West
  • Gauging Latent Demand for Affordable Housing
  • Empirical Correlates of Housing Affordability
  • Assessing Tax Base Sharing by Actor Class
  • Interlocal Fiscal Differentials
  • Conclusions
SECTION IV: STEWARDSHIP OF THE MOUNTAIN ENVIRONMENT: STRATEGIES AND POLICIES
Alison Gill
  • Environmental Limitations to Tourism Development in Mountain Environments
  • Challenges to the Sustainability of Mountain Environments
Chapter 12. The Evolving Movement Toward Global Stewardship of Mountain Places
Terry J. Minger and Meredith Miller
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Elements of Global Mountain Stewardship
  • Global Stewardship Opportunities for Mountain Resort Communitites: History, Role, and Frameworks for Engagement
  • Conclusions/Recommentations
Chapter 13. From Collaboration to Implementation in an Era of Globalization: Local Policies to Preserve Agriculture, Wildlife Habitat, and Open Space in Mountain Resort Towns of the Rocky Mountain West
Diane E. Mitsch Bush
  • Introduction
  • Tools for Preservation
  • Key Elements of Culture in the Rocky Mountain West That Influence Collaboration and Planning Efforts
  • The 1990s; Boom Growth and Amenity Migration
  • Pressures to Subdivide in the Rocky Mountain West
  • The Case of Steamboat Springs and Routt County, Colorado
  • Discussion and Conclusions
Chapter 14. Disaster Reduction, Drought, and the Mountain Resort Community
Deborah Thomas, Olga V. Wilhelmi, and Michael J. Hayes
  • Introduction
  • Risk, Vulnerability, and Hazards in Mountain Environments
  • Mountain Hazards
  • Vulnerability
  • Disaster Risk and Mountain Resort Communities
  • The Unique Vulnerability of Mountain Communities as Illustrated by Drought
Chapter 15. Resort Development and Wildfire: Managing the Accumulation of Risks
Brian Muller, Stacey Schulte, and Uddhab Bhandary
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Growth Patterns and Hazards
  • The Land Use Planning Response
  • Conclusions
SECTION V: THE CHANGING RESORT ENVIRONMENT: EMERGING THEMES IN RESORT DESIGN AND PLANNING
Rudi Hartmann

Chapter 16. The Evolution of Village Form and Its Relevance as a Model for Resort Design and Development
Sherry Dorward

  • Introduction
  • Calling It a Village Doesn't Make It One
  • Traditional Village From
  • Difficulties in Translation and Adaptation
  • The Transition of Alpine Villages From Agriculture to Tourism
  • North American Antecedents
  • The Birth of the New Resort Village
  • The Evolution From Resort to Resort Community
Chapter 17. Downstream and Down-Valley: Essential Components and Directions of Growth and Change in the Sprawling Resort Landscapes of the Rocky Mountain West
Rudi Hartmann
  • Research on Resort Models
  • Comparing Seaside Resorts With Mountain Resorts
  • Comparing the Tourist-Historic City With Mountain Resorts
  • Structure and Components of Mountain Resorts/Ski Resorts
  • Modeling Mountain Resorts: Core Resort Areas and Down-Valleys
  • Down-Valley and "Downstream"
  • The Boundaries of Mountain Resort Areas
  • Implications for Planning
Chapter 18. Transportation and Rural Sprawl in Amenity Communities
Jerry Johnson, Bruce Maxwell, Monica Brelsford, and Frank Dougher
  • Introduction
  • Population Growth in the Rocky Mountain West
  • Sprawl, Rural Communities, and Land Use Change
  • Efforts to Model Land Use Change
  • A Small-Scale Model: Land Use/Land Cover Change Prediction System
  • Integrating Land Use and Transportation Infrastructure
  • Modeling Four Corners, Montana
  • Modeling Teton Valley, Idaho
  • Model Forecast Scenarios for Teton Valley, Idaho
  • Model Application
  • Conclusion
Chapter 19. Must Global Trump Local: Concluding Thoughts on Resort Planning in the Global Era
Alison Gill and Thomas Clark
  • Globalization and Mountain Resorts
  • The Globalization of Capital
  • Space and Place Transformations
  • The Environment and Natural Capital
  • The Path Towards Sustainability
  • Concluding Remarks
Contributors

Index

List of Figures

2.1 The area of the Alps-Adriatic Working Community
2.2 The area of the ARGEALP
2.3 The CADSES territory
2.4 The leading idea of the European Wellness Project
3.1 The effects of mountain resort cooperation strategies on destinations
4.1 Foreign exchange rates and numbers of Japanese overseas travelers
4.2 Sectoral production linkage map of Japanese tourism production system at Whistler, British Columbia
5.1 Villard del Lans circa 1920
5.2 Typical stone farmhouse near Villard de Lans
5.3 Section of a typical farmhouse
5.4 Typical hamlet
5.5 Hamlet trail system near Villard de Lans
5.6 Route through the Grade Goulets
5.7 Elevation of Les Gentianes
5.8 Typical modern condominium in Villard de Lans
5.9 Various ski chalet types near Correncon
5.10 Map of Villard de Lans showing incorporation of outlying hamlets into the village
5.11 Perspective drawing of a converted house-barn
7.1 The relative strengths of the Ruapehu ski area site, 2004
7.2 Potential composition of the Ruapehu ski areas site
8.1 Gunnison County, Colorado
8.2 Gunnison County base income (2001)
8.2 Gunnison County base employment
9.1 Alpen-Adria region: accommodation amenities and size of tourist resorts
9.2 Alpen-Adria, province of Veneto: type of mountain resort skiing
10.1 Study site location map
10.2 Linking community QOL perspectives and social dilemma
10.3 A public process to resolve social dilemmas
11.1 Population change versus change in the ratio of median gross rent to median household income, 1990 to 2000
11.2 Median household income versus the percent of all resident workers in tourist services, 2000
11.3 Persons below the poverty level (1999) versus the percent of all resident workers in the tourist services industry, 2000
11.4 Critical decision trade-offs for those whose behavior shapes housing outcomes in resort regions
14.1 Interview locations throughout Colorado
14.2 Reduced water levels in Green Mountain Reservoir
14.3 Consequences of debris flow in aftermath of wildfire near Durango, Colorado
15.1 Study area with wildfire hazard
15.2 Projected 2030 development in unincorporated areas, Clear Creek County
15.3 Projected development in unincorporated areas: four-county area
16.1 River Run Village at Keystone Resort, Colorado
16.2 Vail Village pedestrian core
16.3 Beaver Creek Resort, Colorado
16.4 Kagbeni, a remote farming village north of the Annapurnas in north central Nepal
16.5 Namsu, a Monpa tribal village in the Himalayan foothills of the northeast Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh
16.6 St. Véran, in the Queyras Mountain of southeastern France
16.7 Lauterbrunnen, Switzerland, is gently nestled in a steep-sided Alpine valley
16.8 Alpbach, Austria, is a museum-quality village of characteristic Alpine wooden buildings
16.9 Les Ménuires, an ultramodern postwar French ski resort in the Trois Vallées
16.10 Phoenix Park, a ski and summer resort near Seoul, South Korea
16.11 Val Morel, a newer resort development in the French Alps
16.12 Colorado Avenue, Telluride's main street, has retained many of its 19th centure commercial buildings
16.13 The main street of Park City, shown here during the annual arts fair
16.14 Vail, Colorado
16.15 Lionshead, the secondary portal to Vail Mountain
16.16 Copper Mountain's new pedestrian village core
17.1 Stansfield's seaside resort model (Atlantic City) including a resort business district (RBD)
17.2 Lavery's (1971) seaside resort model including a resort business district (RBD)
17.3 S. William's (1998) model of a conventional seaside resort
17.4 Smith's (1991) model of beach resort formation
17.5 Dorward's (1990) generalized layout of two successive types of Alpine ski resorts
17.6 Dorward's (1990) generalized layout of postwar French ski resorts
17.7 Dorward's (1990) conceptual layout diagram of Vail Village
17.8 Graham, Ashworth, and Tunbridge's (2000) waterfront variant on the evolutionary model of the tourist-historic city
17.9 Student sketch of "typical" mountain resort/ski resort
17.10 Modeling mountain resorts: core resort areas and down-valleys
18.1 Average east- and west-bound traffic over Teton Pass, January, February, March 2002
18.2 Hypothetical probability of change for cell in native range to other land use
18.3 Changes in commuter capacity from 1995 to 2002, Four Corners, Montana
18.4 Teton County, Idaho study area including the towns of Driggs and Victor
18.5 Graph showing the percent matching (accuracy) of the model-predicted 1999 map with the observed 1999 land use map
18.6 Graph showing the percent matching (accuracy) of the model-predicted 2004 map with the observed 2001 land use map
18.7 The mean number of map cells (~10 acres) in each land use category for the observed 2001 map compared to the 2004 predicted map
18.8 Comparison of forecasted map cells in residential land use with population predictions for Teton County
18.9 Mean number of low-density residential cells forecasted for the study area
18.10 Mean number of low-density residential cells forecasted for the study area
18.11 Dispersion of rural residential wells (1990-2003) and distance from Bozeman to Four Corners, Montana without commuter capacity
18.12 Dispersion of rural residential wells (1990-2003) and distance from Bozeman to Four Corners, Montana with commuter capacity
18.13 Dispersion of rural wells (1990-2003) in Teton County, Idaho

List of Tables

3.1 Acquisitions of the "big three" mountain resort corporations
3.2 Environmental and social initiatives by Whistler Blackcomb
8.1 Demographic information
8.2 Regression results: Binary probit model
8.3 Effect of commercial and residential development of ranch land on tourist visitation
8.4 Summary of respondents' trip expenditures in Gunnison County, Colorado
8.5 Spending and confidence interval information
8.6 Estimated annual output impact of hypothetical ranch open space development
8.7 Estimated annual employment impact of hypothetical ranch open space development
9.1 Major characteristics of selected Alpen-Adria winter sport resorts
9.2 Motives to visit Slovenian Alpen-Adria winter sport resorts (in summer)
9.3 The use of natural and human resources in resorts, 2002
9.4 Ecological behavior and standpoint of tourists, 2002
10.1 General indicators of community QOL
10.2 Public participation elements that secure behavioral solutions
11.1 Housing tenure and occupancy rates in the fast-growing resort regions of the mountain west, by state, 2000
11.2 Tourism and recreation-related workers by place of residence: resort, residual, and peripheral residential domains, 2000
11.3 Tourist services workers living in peripheral areas, as a percent of all tourist services workers residing in county, 2000
11.4 Sales and property tax differentials in resort regions, 2001
12.1 Trends in mountain stewardship
15.1 Population growth by county: 2000-2025
15.2 Current and projected development in unincorporated areas of four central Colorado counties, 2000-2025
15.3 Current and projected development on hazardous lands: 2000-2025 unincorporated areas of four central Colorado counties
15.4 Subdivision regulations by county
15.5 Individual property regulations by county
17.1 Down-valleys and core resort areas: 10 ground rules
18.1 Four LUCCPS models predicting land use change in the Four Corners area, Montana
18.2 Calibration of the LUCCPS model using 1987 and 1995 land use layers
18.3 Four LUCCPS models predicting land use change in the Four Corners area, Montana