Polar Tourism : Human, Environmental and Governance Dimensions

Patrick T. Maher, Emma J. Stewart, Michael Luck

ISBN: 978-1-882345-55-7

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i

Contents
Foreword vii
Mark Nuttall
Acknowledgments xi

I. INTRODUCTION
Chapter 1. An Introduction to Polar Tourism: Human, Environmental and Governance Dimensions 3
Patrick T. Maher, Emma J. Stewart, and Michael Lück

II. ARCTIC TOURISM
Chapter 2. Arctic Tourism. Arctic Tourism Introduction 17 Margaret E. Johnston
Chapter 3. Arctic Human Dimension. Coping With Change and Vulnerability: A Case Study of Resident Attitudes Toward Tourism in Cambridge Bay and Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada 33
Emma J. Stewart, Dianne Draper, and Jackie Dawson

Chapter 4. Arctic Environmental Dimension. Behavior of Belugas in the Presence of Whale-atching Vessels in Churchill, Manitoba and Recommendations for Local Beluga-Watching Activities 54
Christopher D. Malcolm and Heather C. Penner

Chapter 5. Arctic Governance Dimension. Tourism Strategies and Environmental Labeling in Greenland 80
Berit C. Kaae and Matilde K. Råhede

ii Contents

III. ANTARCTIC TOURISM
Chapter 6. Antarctic Tourism. Antarctic Tourism

Introduction 105
Kim Crosbie and John Splettstoesser

Chapter 7. Antarctic Human Dimension. Ambassadors for the Experience: Perspectives From the Ross Sea Region 121
Patrick T. Maher

Chapter 8. Antarctic Environmental Dimension. A Case Study on the Effects of Human Activity on Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddelli) With Management Outcomes 142
Tamara van Polanen Petel

Chapter 9. Antarctic Governance Dimension. A Long-Term Strategy for Antarctic Tourism: The Key to Decision Making Within the Antarctic Treaty System? 167
Kees Bastmeijer

IV. SUB-ARCTIC TOURISM
Chapter 10. Sub-Arctic Tourism. Sub-Arctic Tourism

Introduction 187
John S. Hull

Chapter 11. Sub-Arctic Human Dimension. Resiliency and Tourism in Ontario’s Far North: The Social Ecological System of the Weenusk First Nation at Peawanuck 206
R. Harvey Lemelin and Norman McIntyre

Chapter 12. Sub-Arctic Environmental Dimension. Climate Change and Adaptation Strategies of the Tourism Industry in Northern Europe 221
Kaarina Tervo-Kankare and Jarkko Saarinen

V. SUB-ANTARCTIC TOURISM
Chapter 13. Sub-Antarctic Tourism. Sub-Antarctic Tourism Introduction 239
Eric J. Shelton

Contents iii

Chapter 14. Sub-Antarctic Human Dimension. Managing Tourism on Australia’s Sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island 250
Lorne Kriwoken

Chapter 15. Sub-Antarctic Governance Dimension. Policy Framework and Management for the New Zealand Sub-Antarctic Islands 264
Peter McClelland and Mariska Wouters

VI. CONCLUSIONS
Chapter 16. Overall Conclusions 279
Debra Enzenbacher

Contributors 295

Index 301

List of Figures

1.1 Polar overview map
1.2 The Kapitan Khlebnikov in the Northwest Passage
1.3 The Kapitan Khlebnikov in the Ross Sea region
1.4 A book of Austrian-Russian tourist postcards from the Arctic
1.5 A cruise vessel in Hammerfest, Norway
1.6 The Inuit community of Kangiqsujuaq, Nunavik
1.7 Accessing much of Canada’s Arctic is via small planes
1.8 A “new” tourist: an adventurer wanting to undertake unique propositions such as swimming in the Arctic Ocean
2.1 Case study locations
3.1 The tourism system and its relationship to wider forces of change
3.2 Indigenous tourism system
3.3 Nunavut showing locations of Pond Inlet and Cambridge Bay
3.4 Tourists taking pictures of a dead seal in Pond Inlet
3.5 Pond Inlet residents covered the dead seal
4.1 Lower Churchill River and the town of Churchill
4.2 Kayaker and belugas in the Churchill River
4.3 Passenger vessel tracks from 2006 and 2007
4.4 Kayak tracks in 2006
4.5 Snorkeling trip tracks in 2006
4.6 Recommended caution zones and travel corridor for whale-watching activities
5.1 Map of Greenland and Ilulissat region
5.2 The importance of 23 motives for visiting Greenland among tourists in Ilulissat
5.3 Tourists evaluation of the importance of 17 sustainable tourism principles
5.4 Tourist industry evaluation of the importance of 17 sustainable tourism principles
5.5 Tourists evaluation of the 3 most important of 17 sustainable tourism principles
6.1 Case study locations
6.2 Antarctic tourist trends 1992–2008
7.1 The Ross Sea region7.2 Kolb’s experiential learning cycle
7.3 Total NEPr scale scores
7.4 Respondents’ intention to undertake certain behaviors postvisit
8.1 Map of section of Vestfold Hills showing location of Weddell seal colonies and map of Windmill Islands showing Weddell seal colony
8.2 Percentage of lone Weddell seal pups in Antarctica looking at the approacher during stages of approach
8.3 Percentage of lone Weddell seal pups in Antarctica looking at the approacher during stages of approach
8.4 Percentage of Weddell seal cows in Antarctica looking at single person and group of people
8.5 Percentage of Weddell seal cows in Antarctic looking at the approachers with pups differently exposed
8.6 Scatter plot showing positive relationship between distance of approach to Weddell seals
8.7 Contour maps generated through the proportional odds regression model for the 0.5 predictability threshold
8.8 Percentage of lactating Weddell seals looking at the Hagglund at three distances
8.9 Percentage of lactating Weddell seals looking at quad at three distances
8.10 Percentage of lactating seals that looked at the Hagglundd during four drive-bys
8.11 Percentage of lactating seals reacting to the quad during drive-bys
8.12 Mean distance of the seals from the water during four passages of the quad
11.1 Map of Weensuk First Nation at Peawanuck and Polar Bear Provincial Park
12.1 Winter tourism destinations are often situated in peripheral regions or in the vicinity of the Scandinavian mountains
12.2 The Ruka tourism destination in Northern Finland
12.3 Adaptation methods to cope with current climatic variability in northern Finland
14.1 Location of Macquarie Island in the Southern Ocean
14.2 Zoning of Macquarie Island Marine Park
15.1 Map of the New Zealand sub-Antarctic islands
15.2 Tourists crossing Sandy Bay, Enderby Island
15.3 Tourists walking through Anisotome fi elds with male New Zealand sea lion in the background
15.4 Tourists at East Bay, Enderby Island

List of Tables

3.1 Four stages of research adopted in the research
3.2 Resident attitudes to tourism in Cambridge Bay and Pond Inlet
3.3 Positive consequences of tourism as identifi ed by residents
3.4 Future issues, challenges, and threats as identifi ed by residents
4.1 Classifi cation of beluga group types observed in the Churchill River
4.2 Classifi cation of beluga behavior types
4.3 Focal follows of beluga whales attempted and completed
4.4 Number of paired distance/behavior observations of beluga whales
4.5 Percentages of beluga behaviors observed in Churchill
4.6 Chi-square values for comparison of beluga behavior types
4.7 Percentage of beluga whale group types observed under experimental and control conditions
4.8 Number of samples, time spent, and number of passes and interactions by group type in proximity to kayaks
4.9 Tukey’s post hoc signifi cance results between group types for passes and interactions within 100 meters of kayaks
4.10 Number of samples, time spent, and number of passes and interactions by group type in proximity to snorkelers
4.11 Tukey’s post hoc signifi cance results between group types for passes and interactions within 100 meters of snorkelers
7.1 Respondents’ level of enjoyment
7.2 Respondents’ membership status
7.3 Respondents’ recollection opinions on visitation
7.4 Respondents’ recollection beliefs on tourism and visitation restrictions
7.5 Respondents’ thoughts on the label and statement of being an ambassador
7.6 Differences in respondents’ NEPr scale scores from anticipation through to recollection
7.7 NEPr scale statements and means
8.1 Description of Weddell seal behavior
12.1 Possible impacts of climate change on tourism as expressed by nature-based tourism entrepreneurs in Finland
12.2 Climate change attitudes among tourism entrepreneurs in 2005
12.3 Attitudes of tourism entrepreneurs toward climate change-related statements
12.4 Experiences of changes in climatic conditions among tourism entrepreneurs in Finland
14.1 Ship visits and tourist landings for Macquarie Island
15.1 Statutory management hierarchy

A review of Polar Tourism: Human, Environmental and Governance Dimensions from the September 2012 issue of ARCTIC (Vol. 65, No. 2):

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