The Political Economy of Tourism Development in Africa

Peter U. C. Dieke

ISBN: 1-882345-25-8

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Contents

Dedication

Foreword
Dawid J. de Villiers

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1. The Nature and Scope of the Political Economy of Tourism Development in Africa
Peter U. C. Dieke

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Conceptualizing the Political Economy of Tourism Development
  • The Prima Facie Case: Tourism in Economic Development
  • PET and its Relevance to Africa
  • Plan of the Book
Part I: Theoretical and Comparative Prisms

Chapter 2. Tourism in the African Economic Milieu: A Future of Mixed Blessings
Robert A. Poirier

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Importance of Tourism
  • Tourism and Development
  • Conclusion
Chapter 3. Tourism in Africa: The Social and Cultural Framework
David Harrison
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Historical Background
  • The Infrastructural Inheritance
  • Images of Africa
  • The Development of Global Tourism
  • White Tourism and a Black Backlash
  • Conclusion
Chapter 4. Tourism and Political Geography in Southern Africa
David B. Weaver
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Nature of Political Geography
  • Political Geography and Southern Africa
  • Tourism and Political Geography in South Africa
  • Conclusions
Chapter 5. Tourism Policy Formulation in the Southern African Region
Carson L. Jenkins
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Aspects of Policy Formulation
  • Tourism in the Southern Africa Region
  • Tourism Policies in Southern Africa
  • Conclusion
Part II: The Case Studies of Selected African Countries

Chapter 6. Planning Sustainable Tourism in Ghana
Edward Inskeep

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Planning for Sustainable Tourism Development
  • Overview of Ghana
  • Organization of the Tourism Program
  • Applying Concepts of Sustainability in Ghana
  • Tourism Policy and Plan Formulation
  • Conservation and Development of Tourism Resources
  • Plan Implementation and Tourism Management
  • Conclusions
Chapter 7. Planning Tourism in a Reconstructing Economy: The Case of Eritrea
Peter M. Burns
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Planning: A Critical Appraisal
  • Government Roles in Tourism Planning and Policy-Making
  • The Case of Eritrea
  • Tourism Policy and Advice: The 1993 Conference
  • Implications for Development
  • Conclusions
Chapter 8. The Development of Tourism in Namibia
Carson L. Jenkins
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Development Problems
  • Development Assistance
  • Contribution to Development
  • Development Issues
  • Conclusions
Chapter 9. Tourism Development in Kenya
Isaac Sindiga
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Geography of Tourism
  • Development of Tourism
  • Development of Kenya Tourism in the East African Context
  • Tourism and the Kenyan Economy
  • Challenges of Kenya Tourism
  • Future Prospects of Kenya Tourism
  • Conclusion
Chapter 10. Tourism Development in Botswana: Problems and Potential
Adams Dambe Chilisa
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Developing Tourism in Botswana
  • Botswana Tourism Potential
  • Conclusions
Chapter 11. Ecotourism in Zanzibar, Tanzania
Ahmada H. Khatib
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Search for a Definition
  • Ecotourism Perspectives
  • Tourism in Zanzibar
  • Developing Ecotourism in Zanzibar
  • The Case Study: Jozani Forest Reserve
  • Future Prospects of Ecotourism in Zanzibar
Chapter 12. Tourism and Conservation: The Application of Economic Policy Instruments to Wildlife Tourism in Zimbabwe
M. Thea Sinclair and Alan Pack
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Economic Context
  • International Tourism in Zimbabwe
  • Valuing Natural Resources
  • The CAMPFIRE Program
  • Conclusions
Part III: Institutional Structures and Strategic Policies

Chapter 13. Institutional Support for Tourism Development in Africa
Erik Holm-Petersen

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Situation Within Tourism
  • The Tourism Product Base: Protection of Natural Resources
  • Community Involvement in Tourism and Wildlife
  • Trends in Institutional Support
  • Future Possibilities
Conclusion
Chapter 14. Tourism and the Transatlantic Slave Trade: Some Issues and Reflections
Nathan K. Austin
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Transatlantic Slave Trade
  • Opportunities for Development in Tourism
  • Issues of Concern
  • Some Reflections
  • Conclusion
Chapter 15. Regional Cooperation and Tourism Development in Africa
Victor B. Teye
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • International Tourism in Africa
  • Benefits of Regional Tourism Cooperation
  • Regional Cooperation Efforts in Africa
  • The Southern Africa Development Community
  • Conclusion
Chapter 16. RETOSA and Tourism Development Cooperation in Southern Africa
Shepherd Nyaruwata
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Southern Africa Development Cooperation
  • Need for Tourism Cooperation in Southern Africa
  • Tourism Policies and Institutional Framework
  • An Assessment of Work Program
  • Conclusion
Chapter 17. Open Africa: An African NGO Tourism Initiative
Noel N. de Villiers
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Tourism in Africa
  • Human Compulsion
  • The Law of Supply and Demand
  • Open Africa
  • Conclusion
Chapter 18. African Tourism Training and Education: Hits and Misses
Roger Doswell
  • Summary
  • Contemporary Africa and Tourism Education and Training
  • Irrelevance and Cultural Bias
  • Public Sector Administration
  • Hits and Misses
  • Training Needs
  • Level of Responsibility and Skill
  • The Institutional Approach
  • A Vocational Education and Training Strategy and System
Chapter 19. Tourism and Land Tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Expansion of the Modern Space Economy
David B. Weaver
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Modernization and Tenure Patterns in the Sub-Saharan Space Economy
  • Implications for Resource Use and Tourism
  • CAMPFIRE
  • Conclusions
Chapter 20. Tourism and Foreign Investment in Africa
Desmond Omotayo Brown
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The Problem
  • Why Firms Invest Abroad
  • The Potential Benefits of Foreign Tourism Investment for Africa
  • Africa's Touristic Attractiveness for Foreign Investment
  • Impediments to Foreign Direct Tourism Investment in Africa
  • Market Entry Strategies of Foreign Tourism Investors
  • Current Market Entry Strategy Trends in Africa
  • Some Incentives to Increase Foreign Investment in Africa
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
Chapter 21. Community Participation in Tourism in Africa
Laud A. Dei
  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Rationale of the Community Concept
  • Case Studies: Ghana and Zimbabwe
  • The Consensus Model of Planning With Communities
  • Conclusion
Part IV: Future Perspectives

Chapter 22. Tourism and Africa's Long-Term Development Dynamics
Peter U. C. Dieke

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Perspectives From the Chapters
  • Economic Policy Challenges for Africa's Tourism Development
  • Future Agenda
Contributors

Bibliography

Index

List of Figures

1.1. Map of Africa
6.1. Tourism structure plan for Ghana
6.2. St. George's Castle at Elmina
6.3. Durbar of chiefs at the Pan African Festival (PANAFEST)
6.4. Village tourism accommodation in the northern savannah
7.1. Characteristics of contemporary development planning
7.2. Influences on the development process
7.3. Roles of government in planning tourism
7.4. Map of Eritrea
7.5. Krippendorf-Eshel polarities of tourism policy advice
11.1. Ecotourism model
11.2. Location of Zanzibar
11.3. Red colobus monkey
11.4. Board walk in Jozani Forest Reserve
12.1. Tourist arrivals in Zimbabwe
12.2. Tourist arrivals by origin: 1996
12.3. Tourism receipts and expenditures
12.4. Hotel occupancy in Zimbabwe
16.1. Position of RETOSA in the SACD structure
17.1. Footprint icon of Open Africa
19.1. Sub-Saharan space economy: southern variation
19.2. Sub-Saharan space economy: northern variation
21.1. Model of planning with communities

List of Tables

1.1. Tourism trends by subregions: 1995-1998
1.2. Top five destinations in Africa: 1998
1.3. Top five earners in Africa: 1998
3.1. Top ten tourism earners in Africa: 1997
3.2. Selected African countries ranked in terms of importance of holidaymaking and leisure tourism, and in terms of their tourism earnings and GNP
4.1. Centrifugal and centripetal forces
4.2. Tourism-related centrifugal and centripetal forces
8.1. Contribution of tourism to the balance of payments
8.2. Tourist arrivals and tourist receipts by country of residence
8.3. Contribution to government revenues: 1996
9.1. Hotel bed-nights occupied by country of residence: 1997
9.2. Number of visitors to parks and game reserves: 1993-1997
9.3. Kenya national and marine parks and reserves
9.4. Average expenditure of international tourists to Kenya
9.5. Direct employment in tourism in Kenya
10.1. Botswana international tourist arrivals
10.2. Botswana international tourist arrivals: projections
11.1. International tourist arrivals by nationality: 1988-97
11.2. Visitor arrivals to Jozani Forest Reserve: 1990-97
11.3. Visitor arrivals to Jozani Forest Reserve by origin: 1997
15.1. Top 20 tourism earners in Africa (1997) international tourism receipts
15.2. Tourism trends in Africa by subregions: 1994 and 1997
15.3. Tourist arrivals and receipts in selected SADC countries: 1994 and 1997
15.4. Significance of regional markets to southern Africa: Tourist arrivals by main markets
16.1. Background to southern Africa
18.1. Levels of skill and responsibility in tourism enterprises
20.1. Frequencies of U.S.-based travel intermediaries' perceptions of touristic attractiveness on profits in Africa
21.1. Villagers' perceptions following park establishment
21.2. Economic activities and other benefits derived by communities living around the park
21.3. Reaction of local communities to issues related to the creation of the park
21.4. Views on hunting within and outside the park
21.5. Effects of park on prices of some forest products