Tourism and Gaming on American Indian Lands

Alan A. Lew and George A. Van Otten

ISBN: 1-882345-21-5

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Contents

Dedication

Preface: The Allure of the American Indian
Alan A. Lew and George A. Van Otten

Part I: History and Background

Chapter 1. An Overview of the Native American Experience
George A. Van Otten

  • Pre-European Occupancy
  • European Conquest
  • American Settlement of the Western Frontier
  • Reorganization
  • Conclusions
Chapter 2. American Indians in State Tourism Promotional Literature
Alan A. Lew
  • Tourism Promotional Literature and Place Images
  • Content Analysis Methodology
  • Findings
  • Conclusions
Chapter 3. Return of the Native: The Big Picture for Tourism Development in Indian Country
Brenda M. Martin
  • Native Americans and Tourism: 1870 to 1900
  • Tourism Development: 1900 to 1990
  • The Role of Gaming: Quick Fix of the 1990s?
  • Benefits and Costs of Tourism Development
  • An Overview of Sustainable Development
  • Sustainable Tourism Development in Indian Country
  • Conclusion
Chapter 4. The Impact of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act on Tribes in the U.S.
Joan Marie King and Elliot McIntire
  • IGRA and Tribal Sovereignty
  • The Impact of the IGRA
  • Impacts on Tourism
  • Negative Reactions
  • Conclusion
Part II: Tourism Resources

Chapter 5. American Indian Reservation Tourism: A Survey of Resources and Practices
Alan A. Lew

  • Survey Results
  • Respondent Characteristics
  • Tourism Resources
  • Regional Patterns
  • Summary and Conclusions
Chapter 6. The History of Indian Gaming Law and Casino Development in the Western United States
James A. Davis and Lloyd E. Hudman
  • Background
  • Growth of Indian Gaming
  • Location
  • Customers and Market Area
  • Competition
  • Conclusion
Chapter 7. Scenic Resources and Tourism Development in the Navajo Country
Stephen C. Jett
  • Introduction
  • Resources and Tourism Development in the Navajo Country
  • Scenic Resources
  • The Navajo Case
  • Afterthoughts
Part III: Cross-Cultural Impacts

Chapter 8. The Battle of the Little Bighorn: History, Identity, and Tourism in the 1990s
Debra Buchholtz

  • The Battle Over the Battle of the Little Bighorn
  • Battle Week
  • Tourism, Economics, and the Regional Context
  • Conclusion
Chapter 9. The Impacts of Foxwoods Resort Casino on Its Dual Host Community: Southeastern Connecticut and the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe
Barbara A. Carmichael and Donald M. Peppard, Jr.
  • Historical Background
  • Changing Power Relationships
  • Theoretical Background
  • Research Methodology
  • Effects of Casino Development
  • Attitudes Toward the Use of Gambling as an Economic Development Tool
  • Attitudes Toward the Tribe
  • Attitudes Toward the Tribe and Behavior of Local Residents
  • Conclusion
Chapter 10. A Sociological View of Tourism in an American Indian Community: Maintaining Cultural Integrity at Taos Pueblo
Carol Chiago Lujan
  • Explanations of Cultural Strength
  • Research on Tourism
  • Research on American Indian Tourism
  • Physical Description and Historical Background of Taos Pueblo
  • Contemporary Background and Tourism in the Taos Area
  • Social Description of the Town of Taos
  • Interviews
  • Cultural Maintenance
  • Tribal Government's Response to Cultural Maintenance
  • Interaction Between the Town and the Pueblo People
  • Discussion and Conclusion
Part IV: Economic Development

Chapter 11. Casino Gambling and the Polarization of American Indian Reservations
Eve Baron

  • Strategic Development
  • The Progression Toward Strategic Development and Gambling
  • Gambling as Strategic Development Policy
  • Conclusion
Chapter 12. Tourism Development on Native American Lands: The New Mexico Experience
Douglas M. Turco and Roger W. Riley
  • New Mexico and Arizona Tourism on Native American Lands
  • Profiles of Tourists to Native American Lands
  • Eight Northern Indian Pueblos Visitor Profile
  • Tourism Economic Development Strategies
  • Future Directions
Chapter 13. Indian Gaming in New Mexico: An Historical Overview With Implications for Tourism
Wayne J. Pitts and Paul E. Guerin
  • Organization and Method of Inquiry
  • Brief Historical Overview: Tourism in New Mexico
  • Indian Gaming in New Mexico
  • Current Situation: What Has Been Developed?
  • Case Studies
  • What Impacts Are Generated?
  • Indian Gaming as Tourism Strategy
  • Obstacles to Indian Gaming
  • Indian Gaming as a Sustainable Tourism Model
Chapter 14. Investment and Management Agreements for Native American Tourism Enterprises: Case Studies From Arizona
Gary K. Vallen
  • Advantages and Risks of Semiautonomous Organizations
  • Variations of Semiautonomous Organizations
  • Tribal-Run Enterprise
  • Tribal-Owned, Board of Directors-Run Enterprise
  • Management Contracts
  • Land-Only Lease
  • Operating Lease
  • Partnerships
  • Conclusion
Part V: Prospects for Native American Reservation Tourism in the 21st Century
Alan A. Lew and George A. Van Otten
  • The Postindustrial Tourist: Cultural Tourism and Acculturation Pressures
  • Responses: Alternative Tourism, Ecotourism, and Sustainable Tourism Development
  • Reservation Gaming
  • The Future
Contributors

Bibliography

Index

List of Figures

2.1. American Indian tourism promotion by state tourism offices
5.1. Number of tribal entities to which surveys were sent in each state
5.2. Regionalization and tourism intensity values
5.3. Natural environment for regions from Table 5.1
5.4. Powwow competitions for regions from Table 5.1
5.5. Visitors' centers or museums for regions from Table 5.1
5.6. Bingo and casino gaming for regions from Table 5.1
5.7. Community support for tourism for regions from Table 5.1
5.8. Tribal leadership support for tourism for regions from Table 5.1
5.9. Tourism sponsorship for regions from Table 5.1
5.10. Availability of financing for tourism development for regions from Table 5.1
6.1. Distribution of reservation gaming in the western U.S., 1995
7.1. Map of the Navajo and Hopi county
9.1. Map showing location of Foxwoods in southeast Connecticut
9.2. Map of Mashantucket Reservation and long-range expansion
9.3. Conceptual framework of local residents' perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors with reference to casino development
9.4. Matrix model classifying residents by their attitudes and behaviors
13.1. Map of Indian gaming casinos in New Mexico

List of Tables

2.1. Types of Native American references in state promotional brochures
2.2. Major Indian tourism promotion states
2.3. Minor Indian themes in official state guides
2.4. Minimal Indian tourism promotion states, with a small Indian presence
2.5. Minimal Indian tourism promotion states, with a large Indian presence
4.1. Winnings from Indian gaming in New Mexico, Spring 1995
5.1. Geographic distribution of survey respondents
5.2. Types of survey respondents to questionnaire
5.3. Perceived intensity and tribal involvement in tourism
5.4. Tourism characteristics of reservation/tribal land
5.5. Responding to tourist inquiries
5.6. Indian reservation resources by frequency
5.7. Presence of dominant attractions
5.8. Characteristics of respondent types
5.9. Tribal tourist information providers
5.10. Reservation tourism resources by type and intensity
5.11. Average characteristics of reservations with selected attraction resources
5.12. Major regional characteristics, tourism administration
5.13. Major regional characteristics, tourism attractions
6.1. Selected characteristics of American reservations in the western United States
9.1. 1995 survey questions
9.2. Changes in attitudes toward the Mashantucket Pequots
9.3. Attitude toward the tribe and attitude toward the casino
9.4. Reasons given for attitude change
9.5. Attitude toward the tribe and attendance at an antiannexation meeting
9.6. Attitude toward the tribe and type of action taken
12.1. Recreation visits to selected national park sites in New Mexico and Arizona, 1985-1994
12.2. Tourism overview of eight northern Indian pueblos
14.1. Examples of semiautonomous organizations

Book Reviews

The following excerpts are from a book review by Patricia A. Stokowski, University of Vemont, Burlington, VT, appearing in the International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 2 (2000), pp. 380-381:

Tourism and Gaming on American Indian Lands. Alan A. Lew and George A. Van Otten (Eds.). Cognizant Communication Corp., New York, NY, 1998. No. of pages: 249.

This book is especially useful in exploring the differences between gaming and other forms of tourism development, and in discussing cultural considerations that arise in evaluating potential tourism futures for Native American tribes. Moreover, by tackling a complex set of issues, across a range of geographical locales, this book makes a truly unique foray into topics that deserve greater social attention. The volume will be a useful reference for professors and graduate students seeking research projects, community leaders and planners working both on reservations and in surrounding locales, and researchers and practitioners interested in cultural tourism, the history and status of gaming on Native American reservations, and the intricacies of tourism development more generally.

Additionally, this book stands alongside other recent books that address gaming-related issues in the USA (HSU, 1999; Meyer-Arendt and Hartmann, 1998; Stokowski, 1996) as further example of increasing interest by tourism researchers into the development and effects of gaming.

Collectively, these volumes offer a  new level of depth and breadth to public debates about gaming, and raise consciousness about the phenomena of casino gaming as a tourism attraction, both on and off the reservations.

The following excerpts are from a book review by Dallen J. Timothy, School of Human Movement, Sport and Leisure Studies, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA, appearing in Tourism Management, Vol. 21 (2000), pp. 654-655:

This volume is one of the several books being published by Cognizant Communication Corporation as part of its `Tourism Dynamics’ series. Tourism and Gaming on American Indian Lands makes an important contribution to the body of knowledge by collating a wide range of information about a subject that has not been addressed in the mainstream tourism literature commensurate with its importance. The book is comprised of five parts (History and Background, Tourism Resources, Cross-Cultural Impacts, Economic Development, and Prospects for Native American Reservation Tourism in the 21st Century), although Section 5 includes only the concluding chapter written by the editors. These sections are well defined, covering most topics of concern to scholars and Native American tourism developers.

Although this book is comprised of 15 contributions, by 18 authors, there is a general absence of overlap between chapters. This is a remarkable accomplishment, since many edited books of this size become redundant when each author attempts to set the context or belabor a point like sustainable development.

The goal of the book is to "increase understanding of reservation-based tourism and make a positive contribution to all who seek to build economic opportunity for Indian people" (p. x). It is clear that the editors and authors have succeeded in achieving this goal.

Accessibility to this book, in terms of its low cost and clear writing style, will make it a valuable resource for undergraduates, graduate students, and other scholars. In addition, many of the success stories, concepts, and data provided will no doubt be a useful resource for native communities throughout North America.