Tourism & Small Entrepreneurs : Development, National Policy and Entrepreneurial Culture: Indonesian Cases

Heidi Dahles and Karin Bras

ISBN: 1-882345-27-4

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Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Tourism and Small Entrepreneurs in Developing Countries: A Theoretical Perspective
Heidi Dahles

  • Introduction
  • Tourism and Development
  • The Dual Economy
  • Small Entrepreneurs
  • Theoretical Framework
  • About This Book
Chapter 2. Small Businesses in the Indonesian Tourism Industry: Entrepreneurship or Employment?
Heidi Dahles
  • Introduction
  • Tourism Development and Government Policy in Indonesia
  • Small and Petty Entrepreneurs in the Indonesian Industry
  • Small Entrepreneurs in Tourism
  • Conclusions
Chapter 3. Massage, Miss? Women Entrepreneurs and Beach Tourism in Bali
Karin Bras and Heidi Dahles
  • Introduction
  • Tourism in Sanur
  • Upgrading Sanur Beach
  • Sanur Beach Business
  • The Politics of Gender
  • Conclusions
Chapter 4. Homestays, Losmen, and Guesthouses: Doing Business in the Low-Budget Accommodation Sector in Kuta and Ubud, Bali
Eveline van der Giessen, Marie-Chantal van Loo, and Karin Bras
  • Introduction
  • Government Regulations in the Hotel Sector
  • Kuta - "the Least Balinese Place in Bali"
  • Ubud: Living up to Its Cultural Image
  • Small Entrepreneurs in the Accommodation Sector
  • Conclusions
Chapter 5. Gili Trawangan: Local Entrepreneurship in Tourism Under Pressure
Theo Kamsma and Karin Bras
  • Introduction
  • Lombok, a New Tourist Destination
  • Gili Trawangan
  • Conclusions and Future Scenario for Gili Trawangan
Chapter 6. A Home Away From Home? The Production and Consumption of Budget Accommodations in Two Tourist Areas in the City of Yogyakarta
Saskia Peeters, Jolanda Urru, and Heidi Dahles
  • Introduction
  • Tourism in Yogyakarta
  • The Accommodation Sector in Yogyakarta
  • Homestays in Sosrowijayan and Prawirotaman: A Comparison
  • The Homestay Tourist
  • Marketing the Homestay
  • Conclusions
Chapter 7. Tukang Becak: The Pedicab Men of Yogyakarta
Hanneke van Gemert, Esther van Genugten, and Heidi Dahles
  • Introduction
  • Becak in Yogyakarta
  • The Daily Life of Becak Drivers
  • Networks and Organizations
  • Local Participation
  • Conclusions
Chapter 8. Mountain Guides in Lombok: Pathfinders up Gunung Rinjani
Karin ter Steege, Sandra Stam, and Karin Bras
  • Introduction
  • Local Guides: Pathfinders or Small Entrepreneurs?
  • The Rinjani Area and Senaru
  • Local Mountain Guides
  • Guiding in Lombok
  • Conclusion
Chapter 9. Pathfinder, Gigolo and Friend: Diverging Entrepreneurial Strategies of Tourist Guides on Two Indonesian Islands
Karin Bras and Heidi Dahles
  • Introduction
  • Small-Scale Entrepreneurs in Tourism
  • Romancing the Tourist
  • Conclusions
Glossary

Contributors

Bibliography

Index

List of Figures

1.1. Location map of Indonesia
3.1. Negotiating the price of a comme çi comme ça massage
4.1. Signboard announcing homestay accommodation in Kuta
5.1. Outrigger boat to Gili Trawangan
6.1. Malioboro street life
6.2. Signboard announcing guesthouse accommodation in Yogyakarta's Prawirotaman area
7.1. Becak men attracting the tourists' attention on Malioboro street
7.2. Becak man taking a rest
8.1. Mount Rinjani area
8.2. Local mountain guide
9.1. Guide liar in Lombok
9.2. Guide liar in Yogyakarta

List of Tables

2.1. Number of foreign visitors and revenues
4.1. Tourist arrivals at Ngurah Rai airport, Bali (1982-1994)
4.2. Number of accommodations, rooms, and beds in Bali (1991-1995)
4.3. Distribution of hotel rooms among the four main resorts in Bali and percentage of star-rated and non-star-rated rooms (1994)
4.4. Room occupancy rate of hotels and other accommodation, Bali (1991-1995)
5.1. Number of Visitors and Hotel Rooms in Nusa Tenggara Barat (1988-1995)
6.1. Number of visitors to Yogyakarta (1989-1995)
6.2. Number of nights spent in Yogyanese by international and domestic tourists (1993-1995)
6.3. Total number of hotel rooms and occupancy rate (1991-1995)

Book Review

The following excerpts are from a book review by Dimitrios Buhalis, University of Surrey, appearing in Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 3(2), 2000, pp. 129-130:

Tourism & Small Entrepreneurs, Development, National Policy, and Entrepreneurial Culture: Indonesian Cases. Heidi Dahles and Karin Bras (Eds.). Cognizant Communication Corp., New York, NY, 1999. No. of pages: 165. $30.00.

A collection of fascinating cases on Indonesian entrepreneurs in Bali, Lombock, and Yogyakarta provides a very interesting account on the informal tourism sector of the country. The essays are contributed by lecturers and students of Tilburg University (The Netherlands) who spent a considerable amount of time researching at the destination. Although the book is rooted on entrepreneurship and small and medium-sized tourism enterprises, it is remarkable that it covers a whole range of tourism policy and planning issues for the destination and a wider context for the particular study. Small enterprises cover the accommodation sector (losman, homestays, wigma); tour and travel agencies; transport (minibuses and private cars); restaurants (warungs and street cafes); souvenir business; rental companies (bikes, beach umbrellas, diving, snorkeling and fishing equipment); and beauty services (massage, manicure, hairstylists makeup). On top of these "respectable" professions and businesses the book refers to a large number of illicit and illegal businesses such as escort services, brothels, gambling halls, and drug dealing.

As stated in the literature about the book, the main audiences are undergraduate and graduate students, scholars, and researchers in leisure and tourism studies, economic anthropology, and Asian studies.

Dahlas and Bras also cover three important recent advances in the field of tourism:
1. The debate on sustainable development and issues of local participation and local employment in tourism.
2. The debate on tourism policies and the role of national states against a background of globalization.
3. The emerging debate on the role of micro-entrepreneurs, self-employed people, and/or the informal sector in tourism.

Although chapters are contributed by individual postgraduate students and researchers a fairly consistent style prevails, giving credit to the editors. However, the absence of a concluding chapter fails to synthesize the material and draw similarities and differences with other destinations. The book is about the informal tourism sector in Indonesia rather than entrepreneurship as emphasized by the title, but it will be nevertheless extremely useful to business, tourism, sociology, and anthropology students and researchers who need to appreciate the practices of SMTEs in Indonesia. In this sense it is thoroughly recommended.