Tourism Development and Local Participation in Latin America

Heidi Dahles and Lou Keune

ISBN: 1-882345-43-6

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Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction
Heidi Dahles and Lou Keune

  • The Organization of International Tourism
  • Sustainability
  • Community
  • Local Entrepreneurship
  • Policy Planning Management
  • About This Book
Chapter 2. The Economic Significance of Tourism in Latin America
Lou Keune and Jan Vugts
  • Introduction
  • Postwar Latin American Socioeconomic Development: Growth and Imbalance
  • The Growth of International Tourism in Latin America
  • The Potential Economic Contribution of Tourism
  • Conclusions
Chapter 3. Tourists and Other People: Governments, Institutions, and Entrepreneurs in Jamaica, Cuba, and Costa Rica
Bea Groen
  • Introduction
  • A Definition
  • Tourists, Tourist Organizations, and Tourist Industries
  • Economic Opportunities From Tourism for Government and Entrepreneurs: Three Case Studies
  • The Future of Ecotourism in Jamaica, Cuba, and Costa Rica: Some Concluding Remarks
Chapter 4. How Eco Is Costa Rica's Ecotourism?
René van der Duim and Jan Philipsen
  • Introduction
  • Ecotourism in Costa Rica
  • Nature as a Tourist Attraction: The Cases of Monteverde and Manuel Antonio
  • Mitigating the Negative Effects of Tourism on Nature and the Environment
  • The Financial Contribution of Tourism to Nature Conservation
  • The Distribution of Tourism Benefits
  • Conclusion
Chapter 5. Locals and Foreigners: Tourism Development, Ethnicity, and Small-Scale Entrepreneurship in Chauita, Costa Rica
Ann Marie van Schaardenburgh
  • Introduction
  • Government Intervention and Local Entrepreneurship
  • Tourism Attractions in Cahuita
  • Tourism Development in Cahuita
  • Ethnic Diversity and Tourism Participation in Cahuita
  • Tourism Policy and Planning
  • Discussion
Chapter 6. The Feasibility of Sustainable Tourism Development: A Case Study in El Salvador
Maryse Brouwer
  • Introduction
  • Sustainable Tourism and the Role of NGOs
  • El Salvador
  • Tourism in San Carlos Lempa
  • Aspects of Sustainability and the Role of CORDES/SES
  • The Future
  • Conclusion
Chapter 7. Fighting Over Tourists: A Case Study of Competing Entrepreneurs in a Small Town in Belize
Suzette Volker and Jorinde Soree
  • Introduction
  • Social Networks and Small-Scale Entrepreneurship
  • Tourism and Government Policy in Belize
  • Pioneers in the San Ignacio Tourism Sector
  • Shifting Power Relations in San Ignacio
  • Conclusion
Chapter 8. Indigenous People and Local Participation in Tourism: Two Case Studies From Ecuador
Carin de Bont and Wendy Janssen
  • Introduction
  • Sustainable Tourism
  • The Setting: The National and Local Level
  • Tourism in Otavalo and Misahuallí Compared
  • Opportunities for Sustainable Tourism in Otavalo and Misahuallí
  • Conclusion
Chapter 9. The (Missing) Gender Dimension: A Review of Tourism Literature on Latin America and the Caribbean
Ann-Marie Van Broeck
  • Introduction
  • Women and Employment in the Tourism Industry
  • Women as the Erotic Other
  • Women as the Exotic Other
  • Summary
Chapter 10. Future Prospects and Perspectives of Latin American and Caribbean Tourism Policies 153
Lou Keune and Heidi Dahles
  • The Need for Development
  • Impact on the Environment
  • Economic Effects
  • Employment
  • Income
  • Expernal Dependency
  • Gender
  • Ethnification
  • Foreign Assistance
  • Sustainable Tourism
  • The Role of Governments
  • The Issue of Local Participation and the Role of the Community
Contributors

Bibliography

Index

List of Figures

2.1. Arrivals of tourists Latin America and the world
2.2. Arrivals of tourists by region
2.3. Tourism receipts Latin America and the world
2.4. Tourism receipts by region
2.5. Arrivals of tourists by country
2.6. Tourism receipts by country
3.1. A Dominican woman on the beach of Boca Chica (Dominican Republic) giving a massage to a tourist
4.1. Map of Costa Rica
4.2. The Monteverde Reserve, Costa Rica
5.1. Map of Costa Rica with research location
6.1. Map of El Salvador with research location
7.1. Map of Beliz
8.1. Map of Ecuador with research location
8.2. Three Indian women in the Andes mountains, Ecuador
8.3. An Indian woman crossing a river by canoe in the Amazon rain forest, Ecuador
8.4. Indigenous tourism
9.1. Sex tourism framework
9.2. Prostitutes in a bar in Puntarenas, Costa Rica

List of Tables

2.1. Some demographic indicators: world regions
2.2. Latin America: main indicators 1950-1997
2.3. Some indicators of human development: world regions
2.4. Human development index 1975-1998, and gross domestic product per capita 1998, selected countries
2.5. Latin America: extend of poverty 1970-1990
2.6. Arrivals of tourists in Latin America, by region: 1950-1997
2.7. Tourism receipts in Latin America, by region: 1950-1997
2.8. Arrivals of tourists in selected countries: 1970-1997
2.9. Arrivals of tourists per 1000 inhabitants, in selected countries: 1970-1997
2.10. Arrivals of tourists per square kilometer, in selected countries: 1970-1997
2.11. Tourism receipts in selected countries: 1907-197
2.12. Tourism receipts per tourist stay-over arrival, selected countries: 1997
2.13. Tourism receipts/export of goods earnings, selected countries: 1970-1997
2.14. Arrivals of tourists by country of destination and region of origin: 1998
5.1.Number of national and international visitors to National Park Cahuita: 1982-1995
7.1. Tourist arrivals in Belize in the 1990s